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Accidental slip.

"The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion.”
 At least, so said writer J. R. Lowell

Be that as it may, it is a very common human failing to stick to an opinion unreasonably or to refuse to admit when we are wrong."

Have you never made a mistake?

Have you always been correct with every decision you have made, every opinion given and every action taken?

It is most unlikely that you would say "yes".

Imperfect humans are certain to make mistakes, some more than others.

The best they can do is to exercise great care so as to reduce the number they make.

You may readily admit that you are not infallible, but when it comes to acknowledging an error do you strive to make people think you are?

When confronted with a mistake do you stoutly argue that it is not an error, when in your heart you know that it is?

Do you strive to twist the facts in order to justify what you have done rather than to admit humbly that you were wrong?

Why people don't admit their mistakes? 

Some people are just stubborn in this respect that they never change their story.

They will never admit an error.

Sometimes the problem may not be merely stubbornness.

It may be related to another characteristic—pride. How could this be?

Well, consider.

Have you ever known a supervisor at work who makes a mistake and, when it is exposed, refuses to admit it or tries to blame someone else?

Or, perhaps, you have heard a person in authority unintentionally say something inaccurate and then be unwilling to acknowledge it.

This could be due to pride, a feeling that in his position he should not be caught in a mistake. 

Parents and schoolteachers sometimes act this way, fearing that they will lose respect and influence if they admit an error, thus weakening their authority.

Related to pride is the idea of “saving face.”

In the Orient some would rather die literally than “lose face.”

But most of us, whether in the East or the West, want to defend our “face,” our prestige or the image we want to present.

This is motivated to a great extent by pride.

Some people may, for another reason, refuse to admit when they are wrong.

Perhaps they are afraid or embarrassed. 

When they have done something that they are ashamed of, and have been called to account for it, sheer shame may cause them to deny the facts or to try to justify their action in an effort to get their consciences to excuse them.

Why admit your mistakes?

The poet Alexander Pope wrote:

Some positive persisting fops we know, who, if once wrong, will needs be always so; But you with pleasure own your errors past, and make each day a critique on the last.”

This is good advice.

It is better to acknowledge ownership of your errors so you can dispose of them than to let pride make you stubbornly hold on to them.

Such stubbornness is not showing respect for the truth.

You probably have known someone—maybe a fellow student, a neighbor, or even a teacher—who never wanted to admit to making a mistake or being wrong.

How do you feel personally about someone like that?

Would your opinion of him go up or down if one day he came right out and said, “I’m sorry; I see I was wrong”?

Yes, no one can maintain the respect of others if he always insists that he is right, even when confronted with an obvious mistake.

This continual self-justification becomes repugnant to them.

It is only proper to apologize for an error that inconveniences someone.

It is adding insult to injury to deny one’s error.

There are times when a person may honestly not recall giving misinformation to a person.

Nevertheless, he can make acknowledgment that it is possible that he made a mistake and, if he did, he did not do it intentionally.

An apology helps to preserve good relations with the other people.

Often, restoring peaceful relations simply requires admitting that we handled matters wrongly and asking forgiveness.

The longer we wait to do this, the more difficult it becomes.

An apology is usually appreciated, especially if made quickly. In fact, the sooner we admit a mistake the better.

To illustrate:

On October 31, 1992, Pope John Paul II admitted that the Inquisition had acted “mistakenly” 360 years ago in punishing Galileo for asserting that the earth is not the center of the universe."

The postponing an apology for such a long time tends to diminish its value.

No Cause for Despair

Diplomat Edward John Phelps observed: 

“The man who makes no mistakes does not usually make anything.”
Though all of us make mistakes, these need not be a cause for despair.

Would a child learn to walk without ever stumbling? 

No, for a child learns from mistakes and keeps on trying until balance is achieved.

To lead balanced lives, we also need to learn from our mistakes and those of others

Listening to experiences of others whose circumstances may mirror our own, can helped us avoid making the same mistakes that they made.

Often a sense of humor will be of help, especially if the wrong or mistake is not too serious or weighty.

One good housewife was carrying a number of dinner plates when she stumbled and dropped the whole stack, smashing all of them.

At that, she burst out laughing, for it seemed to her that such a thing simply could not happen to her.

And yet it did!

Yes, often a sense of humor will keep us from taking ourselves too seriously, which frequently is at the bottom of our not wanting to admit that we have made a mistake.


As long as humans will be imperfect, mistakes will be part of the lives of all.

It is important to recognize this fact and not pretend that we do not make them.

Since none of us are perfect and everyone knows it, we should all be big enough to acknowledge our errors. 

A student's riot.

Why is it that students the world over often march through city streets instead of peacefully studying in their classrooms?

What do they hope to gain by creating an uproar? 

Are their actions planned or are they spontaneous? 

What should the individual student consider when he sees such demonstrations building up?

Points to Ponder

Without doubt in many instances there have been gross injustices that have motivated students to riot.

Their actions appeared to be justified.

However, it would be dangerous to conclude that all student uprisings are of such a nature.

There are other elements involved that the student would do well to consider before getting enmeshed in the mobs.

Where the demonstration is spontaneous, as many seem to be, does the average student who finds himself involved know all the facts concerning the issue?

How many who are spectators, or merely curious, and get swept along with the crowd have had time to make a calm analysis of the situation?

Would there be time to ask one of those participating about the background and intentions of the group?

There is little likelihood of getting all the answers to these questions when a mob is already on the move.

While the demonstration may appear justified on the surface, it might be otherwise if all the facts were known.

Where emotion has begun to run riot, it is difficult to obtain rational answers to one’s inquiries.

Very serious danger is that of getting swept up into a student demonstration that seems innocent enough on the surface, whose motives appear to be honest and justified, but which demonstration is being manipulated and used by elements whose motives are not at all pure.

By succumbing to the mob fever, which is so easily aroused in any mass demonstration, students can unwittingly become the tools of right-wing or left-wing radicals who do not embrace their ideals.

Unknowingly, these sincere students will actually assist such radical elements to destroy an established government and to pave the way for a government that is fashioned according to the warped views of those extremists.

Another very serious aspect for the student to consider is that frequently these demonstrations lead to something the student had not anticipated when he first went along with the group.

What was intended to be a peaceful demonstration can quickly turn into a disaster.

Harsh words can turn into shoves, followed by fists, which could lead to retaliation by bullets.

All of a sudden a student can find himself in a street where blood is being spilled, when that may have been the farthest thing from his mind when he started.

Consider, too, the results.

While it is true that student demonstrations have, at times, stimulated military men to overthrow oppressive rulers, they have often failed to achieve student objectives. 

Even when a bad government is overthrown, the students cannot be certain that the new government will be an improvement.

The injustices and oppression's to which they objected can, in time, return and even intensify.

Consider Youthful Immaturity

The immaturity of the students must be considered also.

This immaturity is clearly evident in their readiness to demonstrate wildly against such things as a raise in bus fares, new dormitory regulations, examinations, governmental decisions, and so forth.

Resorting to public disorder as a way to make known their displeasure or their opinions is not the course of mature thinking.

Such impetuousness causes needless injuries, property damage and deaths.

The death of just one student is a very expensive price to pay for protesting a raise in bus fares.

When students want to make known their views on a matter that concerns them, they can do it in a peaceful and mature manner rather than resorting to the emotional display of an unreasoning mob.

Mob action is the path of anarchy and not the path of law and order. It is not the way for students to learn how to be law abiding citizens who have respect for the property and rights of others.

When they surge through a city as an emotional mob, setting streetcars ablaze, overturning police cars and destroying public buildings, they are injuring the common people, whose tax money paid for such things.

When they destroy private property, they harm innocent people.

Such vandalism puts them in the class of undisciplined delinquents.

This latter point is to be taken into consideration.

Not all student mobs have as their foundation a righteous or just cause.

Some of these riots are only expressions of youths filled with rebellion against any established authority. It is just part of youth’s rebellion against parents, school and government.

This can be seen in the fact that the greatest increase in the crime rates of most countries is among those under the age of twenty-one.

Yes, many riots find their roots in unrighteous hatred for minorities, disrespect for established authorities and a youthful rebellious spirit against the world.

Therefore the hazards of indulging in such student riots are, therefore, far greater than any immediate benefits to be derived.

Many students, after participating in such riots, have apologized and expressed their dismay at having been caught up and used in something they had not anticipated.

So consider these things before you decide to join such riots.

Speaking at a conference.

In your daily contacts with other people, there are frequent occasion when you may find yourself striving to convince someone of the correctness of an opinion.

It might be in a small matter as the best road to take to a certain place or a serious matter such as what career choice to make. 

In any event, when you are right, are you able to persuade others that it is?"

Right motive

To speak persuasively one must have the right motive.

Are you sincerely trying to benefit others or only yourself?

Since self-interest is usually evident, it can stifle persuasive speech.

For example, if one speaks much of the time for the purpose of self-interest then on one occasion he sincerely tries to benefit others, his views may be rejected although beneficial just because of his reputation of being a self-seeker.

Listening and Questioning

Though you have the right view on a matter, still the person you are trying to help may have a different view.

This will often require that you listen to the other person.

Listening will help you to get a clear of what he believes.

Moreover, listening may furnish you with basis for asking some thought-provoking questions.

A few well-chosen questions often can bring to light the truth about a matter.

In court cases, attorneys know the value of questions in what is called cross-examination.

They regard cross-examination as one of the best means for discovering the truth and liken it to a sword for cutting through and destroying falsehood.

Hence, some pointed question may often expose a weak case and prepare the other person for your view.

On the other hand, if you did not happen to have the truth on the subject, then by listening and asking questions you may be able to see the weakness in your own case.

Have Proof

Persuasive speech does not always require you to present proof first; in some case it may be better to let the other person carry his or her burden of proof.

This is especially fitting when others believe something that you do not or others bring false accusations.

Often persons who hold views that are widely accepted think that they are relived of burden of proof.

Hence it is proper to remind them that if they believe this and that, then what is their proof?

Asked to furnish proof, a person in such a situation might realize that what he or she believes to be true is only based on what others think.

But the fact that large numbers of persons believe a certain thing has little to do with the facts.

At one time it was commonly believed that the sun moved around the earth; but now we know better.

So to speak persuasively one must present proof and not assertions.

To get proof you may be require gathering a number of facts from sources that are accepted as authorities.

Those who do not have proof will shift from the original proposition to another to try to win their case.

The other person must watch out for this and insist they stick to the original issue.

Unless this is done, the one trying to speak persuasively may be led from one subject to another and will likely not be able to speak convincingly on the subject that was under consideration.

How you say it

To speak persuasively it is not only what you say that matters, but equally vital is how you say it.

Presenting of information and facts is an art.

We must realize this, otherwise even though we have the facts, our message will lose its force because of the way we said it.

Hence, we must guard against being cold and detached.

How can we persuade others if we lack earnestness and sincerity?

On other hand, if we become too emotional and speak in an super excited tone voice, the listener may think either we are odd or we are trying to win our case with emotion rather than with reason and truth.

Facts presented in a fair, convincing, pleasant and gracious manner are powerful persuaders in causing others to acknowledge our viewpoints that can benefit them.

So, do well by letting others benefit from your wealth of experience by speaking persuasively.

Trying to fall asleep.

. . . 1 . . . 2 . . . 3. . . . counting sheep.

Does it sound familiar?

Is this how you try to fall asleep?

Many experience this night after night.

According to a medical journal, every fifth person has some sleeping disorder—women more so than men, adults more so than youths, town dwellers more so than people in the country.

Some have difficulty in falling asleep, others wake up too early, and still others wake up many times during the night.

What can you do about it if you have such problems?

To begin with, it is good to know something about sleep.

What happens to you when you sleep?

Sleep involves intense electrical activity in the brain.

Medical equipment can measure this.

When you sleep undisturbed for a whole night, you pass through wave patterns of different kinds of sleep.

First, you slowly sink into a “deep trough,” called delta sleep.

This is a sound sleep during which everything slows down.

Your brain, heart and muscles relax.

Your body cleanses and rebuilds itself, as evidenced by the release of growth hormone.

Then you slowly rise to the top of a “wave,” to a much lighter sleep, called rapid-eye-movement, or REM, sleep, which is quite different.

It is mostly during this period that you dream.

Researchers have found that there is as much brain activity in the REM sleep as there is when a person is fully alert, wide-awake.

This stage is not yet fully understood, but scientists theorize that this is when the brain is absorbing the events of the day, like a computer, storing them in its memory bank.

You may pass through four to six such “waves” during the night, each “wave” lasting about an hour and a half.

This sleeping rhythm is important to a person’s well-being.

It can be disturbed by alcohol, sleeping pills and sedatives, which eliminate or reduce the important REM sleep.

Some appetite-hampering drugs and cough medicines may also disturb this rhythm.

Sleeping well at night

If you have trouble in sleeping, the first thing to do is stop being overly worried about it.

Worry only hampers your sleep.

Usually there is no danger in being without sleep for a period now and then.

The Swiss psychotherapist Paul Debois likens sleep to a dove.

If you hold your hand out gently, it comes voluntarily and settles on it.

But if you try to grab it, it flies away.

Don’t compare your sleep with that of other persons.

The need for sleep varies with age and from person to person.

Babies need 18 hours of sleep.

Normally, younger people need seven to eight hours.

Some older persons need only four to seven hours.

Much of the anxiety about sleeplessness is unnecessary, as sleep requirements normally change with age.

What matters is not how many hours of sleep you get but how you feel.

Indeed, analysis of the sleep of persons who claim to suffer from sleeplessness shows that they often sleep more than they think they do.

Why you maybe having trouble sleeping?

Perhaps the problem is not you but that of your environment.

The ventilation of the bedroom may be poor, or the temperature may be too high.

Try keeping it between 59 and 62 degrees Fahrenheit (15 to 17 degrees Celsius).

Rather high humidity in the bedroom is usually good.

If you take the chill off your bed before lying in it, you may fall asleep more easily, as a cool bed has a stimulating effect.

Is your bed well suited to you?

You should be able to move in it without difficulty.

Since your bed is where you spend one third of your life, get the best you can afford.

Make sure it is correctly placed in the room.

Most people prefer to sleep with their head toward the window.

Even the material in the mattress and the bedclothes may affect your sleep.

For example, a nightdress of synthetic fiber might cause discomfort.

The bedroom light may disturb you.

Some need complete darkness and even have to wear an eye mask, while others want a soft night lamp burning.

There may also be annoying sounds.

Have a new washer put in that dripping faucet.

If nothing else helps, use earplugs—although it takes some time to get used to them, and they are not a good idea for people with chronic ear problems.

Resetting your day and night rhythm

Do not try to force yourself into sleep.

Some people simply cannot get sleepy until the early morning hours.

Doctors have found that it is much easier to adjust their internal clocks by advancing them than by trying to “move the hands back.”

Some lifetime insomniacs were cured by simply postponing their bedtime a few hours each day until their cycles advanced to a normal bedtime!

“During treatment I felt like a zombie [a walking dead person],”
admits one cured patient, but the final results were good.

Some people who complain about poor night sleep actually rob themselves by sleeping during the day.

So, if you find it difficult to fall asleep at night, try to avoid that nap after lunch.

‘But I get so drowsy!’ some will say.

Well, at those times why not do something else that may be refreshing, like taking a quick walk?

Think of your sleep as money in the bank.

If you “spend” it in naps, you won’t have it at night when you really need it.

The “do’s” and “don’ts”

Vigorous physical exercise is a good remedy for sleeplessness.

Have you considered getting off the bus one or two stops earlier on your way home from work and walking briskly the rest of the way?

It may help you to sleep better.

On the other hand, too much exercise just before bedtime is not advisable.

Nor is eating a heavy meal before bedtime.

Both activities will get your body all “fired up” and may chase sleep away for hours.

Even a light meal before bedtime may activate you if it contains sugar.

Did you know that smokers generally have more problems with their sleep than do nonsmokers?

Sleep habits of smokers who suddenly quit improve dramatically, according to researchers at Pennsylvania State University.

In fact, heavy smokers who abruptly stopped reportedly spent 45 percent less time awake during the first three nights after quitting.

Avoid stimulants before bedtime.

Coffee, tea and cola drinks contain caffeine, the stimulating effect of which usually does not culminate until between two and four hours after you have consumed the drink.

Even cocoa is somewhat stimulating.

Some persons cannot drink such stimulants as coffee or tea after four o’clock in the afternoon if they want a good night’s sleep.

Other sleep-hampering stimuli may be late TV watching and exciting reading.

Milk, cheese, nuts and liver contain the amino acid L-tryptophan, which makes a person sleepy.

Preliminary results show that persons taking a dose of L-tryptophan before going to bed fall asleep more quickly and sleep longer.

A warm bath, or at least a warm footbath, before bedtime has a soothing effect.

Other suggested remedies for insomnia include such herbs as hops, heather, chamomile, passionflower (Passiflora incarnata) and peppermint used in the evening tea.

In some cases doctors may prescribe sleeping pills for a limited time, but, as Family Health put it, sleep experts “are categorically against the use of any sleeping pill for an extended period of time.”

If you suffer from sleeplessness, why not try the simple ideas found in this article?

If they don’t work, see your doctor.

It may be that your insomnia is caused by a chronic physical problem of which you are unaware.

While it may be true that sleeplessness never killed anybody, it is equally true that, as a haggard victim of insomnia said:

“It can make you wish you were dead!”

So want to sleep better?

● Avoid sleeping pills.

● Sleep at regular times.

● Get physical exercise, and avoid sleeping during the daytime.

● Quit smoking.

● Avoid coffee, tea, cola drinks, cocoa, TV watching and exciting reading before bedtime.

● Take a warm bath, or at least a foot bath, before going to bed.

● Have a cup of soothing herb tea.

● Keep your bedroom well ventilated, with low temperature and rather high humidity.

● Don’t take your problems to bed with you. If you couldn’t solve them today, let them wait until tomorrow.

Picture of father and son.

Good discipline is to teach children what is expected of them.

It implies the setting up of rules and regulations that must be followed.

Rules, however, must be few. Too many rules confuse and discourage a child.

Children need an non-confused, clear-cut picture of rules you expect them to keep.

In fact, children find bolstering comfort in having clear limits set as to what they may and may not do.

Hands that firmly guide them along the set way are generally accepted by children as loving hands.

Helping them keep rules

Children should be able to count on their parents to help them keep the rules.

Do not expect them to obey rules if you as parent are lax about obeying rules.
Do not expect them to be what you are not.

The younger ones imitate the older ones, just as these, in turn, imitate their elders.

If the mother and father go through a stop sign, take shortcuts, drink heavily, curse, and so forth, children that see and hear may follow a similar course.

Even though obedience is regarded as the first virtue, and a spank is occasionally used to jolt the child back on the right track, the primary discipline is that of example and environment.

Since learning begins shortly after birth, discipline must begin then also.

However, try to give the child a reason for not doing certain things.

“Don’t touch. It will hurt you.”

Let your voice and facial expressions show that you mean every word you say.

Tell the truth.

Sooner or later the child will discover that it was not hot and you will not be obeyed next time.

Therefore, if you use some key word falsely to get your way, a child will test you to find out if you are telling the truth or not.

So do not give the child a reason not to believe you. It could prove to be fatal.

Children should be warned that if they break rules they will be punished.

But do not threaten to turn a child over to the police or send him or her to reformed school unless you intend to act.

If you fail to carry out your threat, the child will not take you seriously.

It may even serve as a reminder to the child that he or she can get away with the same misbehavior.

In fact, at times a warning or a threat acts as a challenge to a child.

The child will purposely ignore the warning to see if you will carry out your threat.

So never issue a warning you do not mean or cannot fulfill.

Be swift about keeping your word.

Any inconsistency is a blow to good discipline.

Parents and rules of discipline

Mother and father must follow the same set of rules of discipline. 

They must back each other up even when they may not see eye to eye in a given situation.
If one says, “It is study time,” then it is study time!

It is no time to be watching television or playing.

If there is a disagreement, then the parents in private, away from the child’s hearing, can discuss and decide whether to change the study hour to another time.

If one parent changes the rules of the other, the child learns to question all the decisions made.

The child will often try to play one parent against the other just to get his or her way.

It is not good to say, “Wait till your father gets home.”

The child loses respect for the one who shifts the responsibility.

This also applies to fathers who feel that the care of children and disciplining them of them are strictly a mother’s job.

A father who firmly disciplines his children finds that in the long-term they will love him better, feel more comfortable with him, and actually enjoy him more if he will assert himself in the usual parental way.

His wife can help him by showing the children that she respects his judgment and position.


Remember no matter how superficially mature a child appears to be he or she is still a child.

And rules will still be needed. Hence, parents have to take charge.

 Although input from each child should be encouraged, but ultimately all decisions must rest with the parents.

Rules should be made, they should be explicit and repeated over and over again.

Children shouldn't have the responsibility for making their own rules.

Food budget.

With prices what they are today, I just don’t know what to feed my family anymore.

Do those words sound familiar?

Do they echo your sentiments?

Many people find they can no longer purchase foods they once did and still stay within their budgets.

The reason is that food prices throughout the world have risen so much in the last decade.

Many are finding it increasingly difficult to make ends meet.

The current plight of the consumer has received a great deal of attention and many are the proposals to arrest the hike in food prices.

Despite various steps taken on federal or local levels to protect the interests of the consumer, it is finally up to the average person to achieve savings on his or her own initiative.

One must know just what areas one can cut down without jeopardizing the family’s health.

To achieve this goal one must know which foods are essential for their health and which they can do without.

Basic requirements for adequate nutrition may be roughly divided into four groups:

(1) Meats and substitutes for meat, embracing eggs, cheese, nuts, soybeans, and so forth.

(2) Bread, flour and various cereals (grains).

(3) Milk and milk products.

(4) Fruits and vegetables in as great a variety as possible.

Save on meat prices

For the average person is to cut her food expenses to any appreciable degree, one must first start with meat—usually the highest item in her food bill.

One can watch out for specials in the newspapers and build ones menus around the meat bargains of the week.

Perhaps it will be advantageous to buy liver and lower-cost cuts of meat such as rump, neck, flank, chuck or bottom round.

Rib chops are relatively inexpensive.

Blade shoulder steaks are even more economical.

Ham shank is just as flavorful as ham butt, yet much less expensive.

The redeeming feature is that these cuts are just as high in food value as the more expensive ones.

The only difference is that more care must be taken in cooking them, since they may be less tender.

Tongue is another money saver.

When braised in an aromatic sauce and properly garnished, it is delicious, and yet is often only half the price of beef!

Low-cost meat, however, is not always economical.

Sometimes it contains much inedible waste.

So, in comparing the basic cost, it is best to figure out the cost per serving.

Be a wise food shopper

Are you a skillful food shopper?

Do you know what to buy, where to buy, and, most important, when to buy?

It is a skill that can be acquired, and there are many aids.

Food specials are usually advertised on the media and in the public press.

If you can obtain at a saving items you use frequently, it is worth while to purchase an extra quantity, as long as there is no problem as to storage.

But make sure that you do not involve yourself in extra travel cost that can easily wipe out any gain from buying at a bargain price.

It is best if you can find a place that is close to home where food bargains can be had.

The first thing the wise shopper will do, before leaving home, is to check the pantry shelves and make a list of items that are running low.

In this way the housekeeper will be buying necessary things.

It will tend to prevent compulsive buying, or running up a large bill for items that are not really essential.

It is good, too, to get into the habit of reading labels.

Although you have been shopping for years, it would be wise to become label-conscious.

Do not be influenced any more by deceptive sales slogans.

Read the labels to see what you actually getting before you buy, and it can big difference

The labels should tell the ingredients as well as the quantity or weight.

A little mental arithmetic should determine whether it is more economical to buy the small or the large can of some commodity.

Some supermarkets offer their own private-label foods at a lower price than nationally advertised brands of the same products.

Why not try these private brands sometime?

You may find them to be of just as good quality as those that are so cleverly promoted on billboards or by the electronic media and radio.

Indeed, in some cases it will be the identical product retailed under different labels.

And while we are on the subject of labels, another matter for consideration by the judicious shopper is the cost of packaging.

Some food products are dressed up in special containers, the cost of which is passed on to the purchasing public.

To be practical, it pays to be more concerned about the product itself than about the way it is packed, no matter how attractive it looks.

Also to be kept in mind is the use you are going to make of your purchase.

If the item is canned tomatoes, there are top-quality brands as well as those of lesser quality.

However, if the tomatoes are to be used in soup or spaghetti sauce, high quality is not a must.

The difference in quality may be that one lacks the high color of the other, or one brand has more whole tomatoes than the other.

The time to buy such perishables as fruits and vegetables is important.

To buy these just because they appeal to the eye, and regardless of season, can involve unwarranted expense.

It should be simple to find out the plentiful season for each item, the season when they can be bought for less.

True, one can buy frozen fruits and vegetables, but can it be done at a reasonable cost?

The wise shopper will also take into account the waste factor when purchasing fruits and vegetables.

Of the total volume, in any purchase, how much will be thrown away?

This is important in determining the real cost.

And another point worth giving some thought to:

Is it really necessary to throw away so much of the peelings and trimmings of vegetables and potatoes?

When cutting raw celery for the table, for example, could the less attractive cuttings be saved in a plastic bag and used later for soup or salad?

The shopper might also ask herself, Am I in a rut when it comes to purchasing vegetables?

There is a wide range to choose from, and most of them are excellent for salad-making.

Consider, for instance, some of these: finocchio (or sweet fennel), kale, French endive, mustard greens, escarole, chicory and watercress.

And in the case of lettuce, it should be kept in mind that those dark green outer leaves, often foolishly discarded, are rich in vitamins and minerals.

Protein substitutes and variety 

Once it is appreciated that meat is not the only protein, there can be a start at some real economizing.

There are other foods rich in protein, but for best results they need to be prepared and served with special care so that they will be both inviting in appearance and delicious to the taste.

Fish is one of those protein foods, and in some areas it can be obtained at low cost.

A great variety of fish foods are now available in ever-increasing supply—mussels, scallops, periwinkles, sea urchins.

They can be baked, planked, pan- or deep-fat-fried, poached or steamed, whichever method brings out the best in each one.

Are you keeping your eye on the fish market?

The egg is another satisfier that is a complete protein.

It, too, can be prepared in a variety of ways—from the hard-boiled egg to the exquisite soufflĂ©. No wonder it is so popular!

Some foods, though not being complete proteins such as eggs, still contain valuable protein.

These foods, such as peas, navy and lima beans, are often called “incomplete” proteins because they do not contain as many of the essential amino acids.

Lentils are another example.

They, combine with many foods to provide satisfying yet inexpensive dishes.

The fact of the matter is that not every meal needs to be a high-protein one.

There are other dishes that are quite satisfying.

The humble potato is an example.

It is astonishing the number of ways it can be prepared and served up in tasty dishes, alone or in combination with other foods.

If a cook runs out of ideas in this regard, she may be able to compare notes with her neighbors.

Then there is also rice.

White rice and brown rice offer plenty of scope, and can be cooked either as a potato substitute or as dessert.

It all depends on what seasoning or flavoring is added.

There are many more one-dish meals that can provide satisfying meals: macaroni, spaghetti and tomato sauce, stuffed eggplant, chicken chow mien, stuffed green peppers, to name but a few.

True, these present a challenge to the skill of the cook, for they are often expected to rival the meat dish in appeal and taste.

But the effort is well worth while, for it will add variety to your menus while also cutting costs.

Stimulate appetite for simple meals

A good cook can make the simplest of meals a delightful experience, the color, form, flavor and arrangement of the food can have a powerful influence on the eater.

So, one should gives attention to such items as herbs, spices and garnishes.

A little extra thought and a few more minutes in preparing an attractive meal can make the difference.

The color factor in the finished meal can have a great deal of influence.

A dish of meat that is a drab brown can be livened up with tomatoes, beets, carrots or broccoli.

Radishes will add a flash of color to the salad.

The attractive appearance of the food stimulates the taste buds and renders the meal more enjoyable.

Spices and flavorings, used moderately, can enhance the enjoyment of the meals and add to the variety of your dishes.

And speaking of variety, it is good to try out new recipes from time to time.

Take the potato, for instance.

It has been said that there are more than 1,500 ways to serve this common commodity.

Perhaps many housewives have used no more than half a dozen of these.

So there is a big field of adventure here.

Nor is it necessary to cook every vegetable.

Besides serving them raw in salads, some of these, such as carrots, onions and celery, can be served fresh.

In this form they have more nutritional value than when cooked.

Hungry children will gladly nibble on such items between meals.

Skillful use of leftovers is another way to achieve economy without sacrificing taste appeal.

With imagination and skill, very popular dishes can be prepared.

For example, leftover meat can be chopped quite small and cooked with rice, spiced or seasoned to just the right degree.

Leftover mashed potatoes can be pan-fried the next day.

Geography lessons could come alive right at the dinner table if dishes popular in faraway lands are worked into the menu from time to time—Russian borsch, Hungarian goulash, Mexican tamales, and so on.

Many of these are quite economical too.

It will take extra time to watch for food bargains, to make sure that the family are receiving adequate nutrition, to introduce more variety into the menu, to cut down on wastage.

But if one does this he or she will be relieved of monotony and one will enjoy the satisfaction of contributing towards food economy that is so vital in these days of rising costs.

House on fire.

Knowing some of the common mistakes that have cost people their lives can help you to avoid them if your home catches fire.

Although your house may have not caught fire, that does not mean it will never will.

The possibility always exists because there are so many factors that can cause a fire.

On average, a house catches fire about every fifty seconds.

It would be wise, therefore to be prepared in case this happens to your house.

Supposed you are suddenly awakened during the night by the smell of smoke.

What would you do?

But how can you make advance plans to deal with fire challenges?

Avoiding making fatal mistakes

If you rush to the bedroom door and fling it open you could be making a fatal mistake that would likely cost your life.

It is not necessary for the flames actually to reach a person for one to be killed in a house fire.

They can be on the ground floor and still be deadly to a person upstairs.

That is the most dangerous place to be when there is a fire.

Heat and smoke ascend the staircase, trapping the people in the upper rooms.

Unfortunately, if the bedrooms doors are open, the poisonous gases in the smoke will very likely kill the people sleeping there without ever awakening them.

Even if someone does awake, the gases are still likely to kill him if he does not get out quickly.

There is better chance of living longer and escaping if the bedroom doors are always kept closed at night. They act as a temporary barrier to the heat and smoke.

Now, why would it be fatal mistake to fling a bedroom door open when there is a fire accumulation?

If the bedroom doors are closed, the hot gases of the fire accumulate in the upstairs hallway.

Their temperature can reach 1000 degree F., and the smoke and pressure can be great.

When a door is opened, the hot gases rush through the doorway into the cooler bedroom.

You can well imagine what gases heated to 1000 degrees F. would do to a person opening the door.

Even if you were to breathe air that is heated to 300 degrees F. you would die in a few minutes.

Instead of opening the door, you should first put your hand on the inside panel.

If it is hot, you should not open the door under any circumstances, not even in attempt to save others.

You would never make it across the threshold.

You should awake others by pounding on it and shouting.

They too, however should know the dangers of a hot door.

Escape can then be made through a window, and from the outside you can help others to escape.

But supposed the panel of the door is not hot, what then?

You might take the chance on opening the door, but with extreme care.

To prevent it from being forced open by accumulated gases that are deadly, you should brace your body against the door with your face turned away from the edge where the doorknob is.

Your foot should be placed against the door at the floor level to prevent it from being forced open by gases.

Then open the door carefully.

If pressure is felt against the door it should be slammed shut immediately.

If not, you can open it gradually and see if the hallway is sufficient free of smoke so that you can go downstairs.

If it is, you can run while in a crouched position, as smoke will usually be nearer the ceiling than the floor. In some instances you might have to crawl along the floor.

But if the hallway is filled with dense choking smoke, you would be making a fatal mistake trying to escape through it.

Even if you tried holding your breath, you would not likely be able to hold it long enough to get out.

The gases in the smoke could render you unconscious very quickly and kill you in a few minutes.

Eleven to fourteen toxic gases are given off from the burning of various things in a house.

In fact, eighty percent of the people killed in a house fire lose their lives because of these gases.

So do not under-estimate dense smoke and try and avoid it as much as possible.

Get out as quickly you can and stay there

No matter how small a fire is, get everyone out of the house immediately.

A woman who failed to do this lost her children.

She found a fire smoldering in a chair, but instead of getting her children out of the house first she ran to a neighbor for help.

The two women carried the chair outside, but the children, who had been sleeping upstairs, were found dead.

The toxic gases from the burning chair had gone up the stairway into their bedroom and killed them.

Other people make the mistake of trying to save some of their possessions before leaving the house.

They do not realize how quickly a fire can spread and fill a house with deadly smoke.

Just the few minutes they take in an effort to rescue a few valuable items could cost them their lives.

For example, one man who discovered a fire in his basement ran upstairs to save his stamp collection and some prized art objects, which he dropped to safety from the window, but never lived to retrieve them.

Material possessions can usually be replaced, but no family can replace the life of one of its members.

Is it not more sensible to save first what is the most valuable – your life?

Once a person is outside he or she should stay out.

One would be making a grave error if he or she runs back into the house to rescue something.

This should be especially impressed on the children of a family, as some children have run back into a burning house to rescue a pet or doll and never come out alive.

Mistakes have also been made in sending an alarm to the fire department.

Taking the time to phone the fire department while still in a burning house may delay your escape long enough to cause your death.

The best policy is to get out first and then notify the fire department on a neighbors phone.

Furthermore, even if you think that you can fight the fire, send in an alarm first.

In the event that your efforts fail, you will have professional help there before it makes much headway.

If you succeed, they are not likely to feel disappointed.

Blaming others.

To see things in their true light is not always easy, especially not when we have made a poor showing or something has gone wrong.

We may, in all sincerity, be convinced that how we were reared or the circumstances over which we had no control and other people are to blame. 

But is this always the case?"

Could it be that you are also to blame?

For example, we may have been in an automobile accident.

True, there was a fog, or the road was slippery with ice, or another driver was using poor judgment.

But what we should ask ourselves is, was I driving too fast, considering the circumstances?

Had I been drinking?

Was I drowsy from lack of sleep?

Was I daydreaming?

Did I take needless chances?

That is the wise course, not only to get at the facts, but also to profit by the experience and prevent future accidents.

What fills the law courts, so that the calendar of some courts is years behind, is the question: Just who is to blame and to what extent?

How fine it would be if one heard more often two persons arguing like this: “No, it was my fault!" “No, I was to blame!"

Domestic relations courts could be done away with entirely if there were more of such kind of arguments between members of a family.

Today, we are told, discipline is the chief problem in the public schools.

For this situation the teaching faculty is prone to blame the children and their parents.

They are right; but is it not also a fact that, with permissive education and advancing children from grade to grade regardless of what they have learned, there are others who must also share the blame?

Then, too, some teachers receive more respect than do others; they are teachers that love, understanding, resourceful as well as firm when occasion demands.

So each teacher coping with the problem of discipline should ask, could it be that I am to blame, at least in part? 

On the other hand, pupils who are critical of their teachers would do well to ask to what extent they are expecting too much or they themselves are making the teacher’s task needlessly more difficult by their course of actions.

In many homes parents and children live in separate worlds, as it were.

They have their own interests and go their own way to address their problems separately.

Usually, this is because there is a lack of understanding on both sides.

This may cause them to blame each other for their misunderstandings.

However, this only creates a barrier between them.

Being sole concerned with what is to their advantage blinds them to what is due to each other. 

Have parents become strangers to their children because of lack of discernment or because of being so deeply absorbed in their own viewpoint?

Are youths lacking empathy, thus unwilling to see things through their parent’s experienced eyes?

Especially those who fail to find happiness in that ost intimate of all relations is that of husband and wife should ask themselves the following questions. 

Am I to blame that this partnership is not running smoothly or is not producing the fruitage l hoped for and had reason to expect?

If a wife she keeps her husband walking on eggs, as it were, so as not to offend her?

How can he be as appreciative, affectionate, tender and spontaneously ardent as she would like to have him be? 

Likewise the husband, although his wife is not to sets herself up as his judge, still he would do well to ask himself whenever she disappoints him, could it be that he was also to blame?

Yes, let censure and blame begin with ourselves first.

 If all of us could do this, then this could go a long way in help us finding solutions to the many problems affecting our lives.

Smiling cookies.

When someone leaving or enters the room holds the door open you, how do you feel?

When a person smiles and extends his hand to shake yours, what was your response? 

What is your reaction when somebody says a nice thing about you?

Would any of the above gestures by another person make you angry

On the contrary, they are far more likely to make you glad.

The usual reaction to friendly acts or words is a smile, a thank you, a kindly feeling toward the friendly one.

Such positive reactions are normal.

They are the way most people respond to quality of friendliness. 

By far the majority of people appreciate a friendly person, like being around him and are happier by association.

Truly, it is difficult to dislike a sincerely friendly person, unless it is out of jealously.

On the other hand, most people avoid an unfriendly person if they have a choice.

Friendliness brings out the better nature of other people. It tends to make them friendlier.

Yes, friendliness is contagious!

Yes, even a normal gloomy attitude can be improved when a friendly approach is used.

Where the situation is downright hostile, often the friendly attitude calms anger and soothes ruffled feelings. This is because the friendly person does not add fuel to the fire, so it goes out.

True, it is not easy to be friendly in a generally unfriendly world.

The truth of the matter is that the unfriendliness of mankind is becoming more pronounced.

As time passes, violence, hatred, strife and prejudice increase.

But this does not mean that individually we must imitate the worst in mankind.

We can still be friendly and enjoy the benefits it brings within the family circle, among our close friends and among those with whom we work.

Under any circumstances it makes sense not to return in kind the coldness and nastiness of others, because if we do, then we will surely reap more of the same and increase the aggravation we bring upon ourselves.

Make friendliness work for you

There are those who think friendliness works for others not them.

Generally, these persons have not really tried it.

To get a friendly reaction from others one must be friendly.

If you sow friendliness, you will usually reap it.

But if you do not, you will generally not receive it back from others.

Remember that friendliness is universal in its effects and works on all sense possessing creatures, even brute beasts.

Yes, even animal respond much better to friendly persons than to those who are unfriendly. For instance, if a dog is spoken to harshly, will it wag its tail and come running happily towards its master?

No, the opposite will almost occur.

The dog will place its tail between its legs and edge away perhaps growing and baring its teeth, on guard against display of hostility.

But let the master speak in a friendly manner voice and it matter little what he says.

The dog will respond with wagging tail and come running expectantly to its master.

The gentle, friendly voice and manner, combined with a few friendly pats, provoke unbound joy in the animal.

Yes, everyone can have friendliness work for him or her if he or she works at it and cultivates it.

However, we want to make certain that we cultivate it with the proper motive in mind and that it is out of love for others.

It should not be hypocritical or to work out some selfish scheme, otherwise it will not stand the test of time.

Another word of caution is that one should exercise care not to go to the extreme of becoming overly friendly with the members of the opposite sex who are not one’s marriage mate or relative.

This might be misunderstood, particularly by the wife or husband of the other person.

It can lead to jealousy and ruined relationships.


The right kind of friendliness, the kind that is genuine, from the heart, is a thing of beauty.

The truly friendly person has an inward beauty.

The person is easy to get along with, does not promote strife, but contributes to the happiness of those with whom come in contact with him or her.

That is why those who practice friendliness are the most desirable associates.

Would you like to be such a person?

Then find more time to be friendlier to other people.