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Body build.

What is the relationship between body build type of body build and one's health?

Studies indicate that each type of body build has its strong points, its tendencies, its dangers and its distresses.

Researchers point out that there is a greater frequency of some diseases in persons exhibiting a predominance of a particular body build.

Thus the knowledge of the general relationship between body build and health may provide the basis for some preventive measures and at the same time throw some light on why it has been said that one man’s meat is another’s poison.

The combination of weight and height of a person results in a general build of body called habitus.

This word is defined as:

 “the body build and constitution, especially, as related to predisposition to disease.” 

There are three general divisions.

The heavy ones, usually high in what is called endomorphy; the medium or muscular ones, usually high in mesomorphy; and the thin ones, usually high in ectomorphy.

The study of body build in relation to health is being given increasing consideration these days.

It will be interesting to examine what some researchers have found in this matter, both as to disease susceptibilities and health assets.

Digestive system dominant 

This is known as endomorphy, with this body build the abdomen is bulkier than the chest and the limbs are comparatively short.

Those high in this body component are said to have splendid digestion; they can enjoy a heavy meal that would make a thin person most uncomfortable.

With the endomorph build usually comes an unusual freedom from nervous disorders.

Relaxation comes easily.

Sleep also comes easily and is deep.

Dr. Sheldon reports that those high in this body type can get along with less sleep than those of ectomorphic (thin) build.

He states, however, that those of endomorphic build often get too much sleep.

Hence those of this body type need to guard against the tendency to sleep in overdoses, a tendency that can become habitual.

Studies indicate that this body type does not often fall into the snare of overdoing exercise, since there seems to be a tendency to dislike vigorous exercise.

This body build is said to “work off” less food by exercise than others.

Food‘ is said to be. a sheer delight for those of this body type, and almost any kind can be eaten

Without difficulty, including coarse foods and fibers.

Midget meals do not seem to lit the capacious digestive tract of these persons, and they seem to do well with a moderate breakfast and two fairly large meals a day.

There is a tendency, as Dr. Sheldon puts it, for these persons to eat “more than is conducive to [their] best mental. development.”

Moreover, if they are not carefully moderate in food, especially with fats, oils, creams, sugars and gravies, they may easily put on thirty or more pounds every five years until middle life.

Though persons high in other body types may regulate their intake and output of energy quite automatically, a person high in endomorphy often cannot rely on his automatic regulations and may need to follow a dietary regimen prescribed by a physician, if he wishes to avoid the consequences of his constitutional trait.

What about the goal of an ultra-slim figure for those of endomorphic build?

They should remember that a relatively heavy build is natural to their body type, and as Dr. H. J . Berglund writes:

Weight tables, as published by insurance companies and publicized on penny scales, are of little value. Even the recent breakdown into three different tabulations for slight, medium, and heavy skeletons, does not make them individual enough. A person with small bones is probably an endomorph who is more likely to be healthy with a heavy load than many with more expansive skeletons.” 

Taking special precaution to guard against overdieting, overeating and oversleeping is thought to be beneficial for those high in this body type.

Bones and muscle system dominant 

This is called mesomorphy.

Those high in this body type have heavy bones and well-developed muscles.

They may be heavy but not overweight.

As a group these persons are said to be endowed with an unusually rich health capital.

Among their health assets are tremendous physical drive and endurance, with a relatively low sleep requirement, all of which gives them not only more energy than others but more time.

Another benefit is said to be infrequent food requirements, so that they often can go a long time without the thought of food.

Still another benefit of this body build is said to be the relative immunity to common nervous disorders.

There is a natural love for exercise on the part of those high in mesomorth; and since this body build benefits most from exercise, there may be a tendency to overdo it, spending too much time on bodily training.

Hence persons of this body type need to watch that the craving for exercise does not get out of hand, consuming valuable time that should be devoted to more essential things.

If the food habits of youth persist through middle age for persons high in this body build, body fat may accumulate.

Hence it may be necessary for many persons of this type to go easy on oils, fats, creams, gravies and concentrated sugars.

Since high blood pressure is quite common among persons prominent in mesomorphy, they are usually advised to take special care to avoid dangerous emotions, such as jealousy, resentment, anger and rage.

Skin and nervous system dominant

Those high in ectomorphy often have long limbs and delicate bones, long neck, small stomach and a relatively short digestive tract.
Thus the large, heavy meal may overload the small stomach of these persons, causing great discomfort.

They are said to do better with many small meals through the day.

Some studies indicate that persons high in ectomorphic build are relatively free from appendicitis, gall-bladder disorders, nephritis and many infections, except those of the upper respiratory tract.

Persons of this body type are said to have a lower degree of heart and arterial diseases than those of the other two body types, and so they are often regarded by insurance companies as excellent mortality risks.

Weight gains often are only three or four pounds after adolescence, so that the weight curve is consistent with long life expectancy.

Tenseness is said to be common among those of this group, and there is usually a hypersensitivity to insect bites, sometimes a tendency to unexplained itching.

Because those high in ectomorphy present a relatively larger body surface to the impacts of environment, the result is greater energy expenditures, coupled with the fact that there is less opportunity for accumulation of reserves (fat, protein, water, etc.).

The main susceptibility of the group is that of fatigue, caused partly by the fact that the digestive tract is poorly upheld.

Though exercise to strengthen the abdominal muscles is recommended for this group, Dr. Sheldon points out:

“Unnecessary vigorous exercise, instead of building up energy in these people, seems to exhaust the already scanty reserve and to leave them inefficient victims of chronic fatigue.” 

Despite the tendency toward fatigue, Dr. Sheldon adds that these persons may be just as zealous in their activities as those who have greater energy potential, but those of ectomorphic build may not be able to carry through as well as those with the heavier build.

Because of limitations on their energy, coupled with a zeal that may be as intense as those of mesomorphic build, those of this body type may sometimes experience feelings of frustration and dissatisfaction.

More sleep is required for those high in this body component, and they must exercise caution in such matters as socializing and staying up late at night.

Sometimes persons of this body type succumb to a nervous breakdown before they realize that they cannot keep up with the late hours and pace of those with stronger builds.

Thus Dr. Logan Clendening writes in his book The Human Body:

What can be done to help guide a constitutionally thin or heavy person past his dangers? Considering the inherent difficulties of the task, a good deal. For the ones we have called the thin people . . . they should sooner or later be brought to a realization of the very important fact for them that they have not the same powers of endurance as other people with stronger structures. This sounds very logical as put down here, but it is astonishing how long it takes some of these people to come to this conviction, how much turmoil they go through, how many diagnoses are pronounced upon them. My colleagues in the medical profession have been very slow to grasp this idea of the whole man. Rest for certain periods in the day sufficient to renew the stores of energy which these bodies need is the first element in treatment or adjustment. . . . Other accessories to treatment ’ are exercise to strengthen the abdomen-lying on the back and raising the legs to a vertical position-the wearing of supporting corsets, and an increased diet to fatten up persons of this type. . . . The heavy ones . . . must learn to be abstemious at the table.” 

Further suggestions are given in the volume Constitution and Disease for those predisposed to nervous disorders.

It is conceivable that those predisposed to [disorders] of the nervous system may be benefited by vitamin B in doses larger than those required by normal individuals. . . . [With reference to persons of various builds he said:] Regulation of diet, habits, mode of life, advice concerning choice of profession, periodic examination with regard to the individual morbid predisposition, physical and mental hygiene, are the means at our disposal for making up for what nature has denied to certain individuals.” 

Moderation in all habits will do much to help a person of any body build combat adverse predispositions.

And yet, as we have seen, what may be moderate for one body type may well be excessive for another.

Each one must use good judgment in determining.

And this includes moderation in the use of knowledge concerning health matters, preventive measures, and so forth.

Window cleaner.

Jobs naturally are harder to come by when unemployment is high and competition for them is keen.

Even so, much of the increase in time between jobs often stems from the inability of unemployed individuals to make preparations to land a job.

Educators, government officials and businessmen all say that many people remain jobless simply because they do not know how to prepare themselves for the interview.

Other unemployed individuals are reluctant to move to areas where employment is available.

Personnel officers state that most people do a very poor job of selling themselves.

They either do not know where to look for work, or what to say when they do find an opening.

It is obvious that a great many unemployed persons need to know what they must do to prepare themselves for the task of job seeking.

What can be done 

Today’s unemployed can benefit themselves immensely by doing one or more of four basic things:

(1) attend a school that will teach them how to approach an employer, or equip them with a trade that is in demand;

(2) seek employment in a field other than their own trade or profession;

(3) move to an area where there is work

(4) create employment for themselves.

The first two suggestions are in reach of almost every unemployed individual in many places, and their end is rewarding.

Bear in mind that jobs are more exacting today than they were fifteen or even ten years ago-and they are more exacting than the greatest number of the unemployed force is equipped to perform.

Schooling will help, since many of the long-term unemployed are marginal groups who lack education, training or physical abilities.

Many of these people would be rejected because they could not qualify for jobs they apply.

The lack of education of the nation’s youth is highlighted by the number of people who never went beyond basic school.

A closer look at these people reveals that many of them do not have jobs.

Their rate of unemployment was four times that of other young men of comparable age.

The majority of them work in jobs requiring the least skill, providing the lowest earnings and involving the greatest vulnerability to unemployment.

There is no escaping the fact that these unemployed must be trained before they can be absorbed completely into the labor force.

Therefore schooling does really help.

Moving to a place where there are jobs might be difficult to do if one is married and has a family.

Nevertheless, it might be the wisest thing to do.

Moving is never easy, not even under normal circumstances, but it has been done and is being done by job seekers daily.

The fourth suggestion, of course, is possible if one has a trade and is a hustler; he can find odd jobs here and there to keep him going.

There is always carpenter, mechanical and office work to be done.

There is a chance of turning a hobby into a paying job.
It will not hurt to try.

“Help wanted” agencies 

Private and government “help wanted” agencies are in abundance.

Many of them deal with specialized help.

Go to the agency that can serve your needs.

The private employment agent is the in-between man with the right qualifications to supply the right worker for the job, the right job for the worker.

Business and industry use his service.

So why don’t you?

A part-time job might serve your needs while you spend the extra time looking for the work you really want.

In that case it should pay you to investigate the many opportunities for employment offered by firms that specialize in placing temporary office workers.

Check the “help wanted” columns in your local newspaper or online classifieds.

Leave no stone unturned.

Advertise your need to as many people as possible.

Do not let disappointment discourage you.

You can defeat your unemployment problem.

Question mark.

Do you really know?

The more a wise person learns, the more he or she realizes how much more there is to know.

One appreciates how limited their knowledge really is, and that in a lifetime of seventy or eighty years one can only scratch the surface of the things there are to learn.

They also realizes that many things people accept as fact today may be corrected with an increase of knowledge tomorrow.

This keeps one from being dogmatic and from manifesting that irritating “know-it-all” attitude.

Generally it is the person that has only a smattering of knowledge that develops this attitude.

It is particularly a characteristic of many youths today.

They learn a little, and then think they know it all.

Their newfound knowledge puffs them up, causing them to consider their parents and other older folks to be “old-fashioned.”

Unfortunately many persons carry this “know-it-all” attitude over into adult life.

Such persons will go to great ends to give the appearance of knowing.

Have you ever had the occasion to ask for directions, and, instead of the person simply saying he did not know, he directed you on a wild goose chase?

Certainly it is annoying when individuals give misleading information simply to give the appearance of being well informed.

But it can be more than annoying; it can at times cause great suffering and heartache.

Not long ago attractive eight-year-old died after being under the care of a chiropractor who claimed he could cure her cancerous eye with medicines and manipulation.

“I can cure your child without surgery,” he said.

He collected his consultation fees; but the girl suffered terribly and died about a month later.

Regardless of whether he was sincere or not, the chiropractor did not really know; he had no real evidence to support his claim.

So in an unprecedented ruling, he was convicted of second-degree murder and sentenced to imprisonment.

Certainly it is unloving and can even be criminal to propagate information you are unsure of.

A person should therefore think before speaking: “Do I really know this is true?

What evidence do I have that it is?

Could it be only hearsay?

How much better it would be to admit you do not know for sure than to make dogmatic assertions simply because you feel something to be true!

You may even have a basis for your contention, but that does not necessarily mean it is correct.

Due to inadequate methods of observation, faulty experiments or insufficient knowledge, humans sometimes reach different conclusions.

These are printed in reputable books and magazines, and conflicting ideas are thus presented.

So, can you truthfully say you really know for sure, even when you have a reputable source for your information?

A wise person will take into consideration that the conclusions of people are at times incorrect.

One will therefore not be dogmatic.

One will be reasonable, and will recognize that there may be more to the subject than just what he or she has heard or read.

For instance, one person may have learned from authoritative sources that the queen honeybee mates with only one drone bee on her mating flight.

Yet another person may have read the Scientific American, which says that she mates “successively with several drones (on the wing).”

There are endless similar examples of where observations and studies made by learned humans yield different conclusions.

Another thing to consider is that many persons in this world are interested in furthering their own ends, and so endeavor to keep up the appearance of knowing it all when they really do not.

In certain parts of the world, for instance, whole communities have been misinformed, and often exploited, by those who only pretend to know.

In some of such places the literate person is considered practically infallible.

Everything he says is believed without questions, because, as it is said, ‘He reads the book.’

This is true particularly in certain African countries; but, surprisingly, quite similar conditions exist in places where nearly everyone is literate.

In the Western world the pronouncements of men of science are likewise viewed as almost infallible.

When a scientist makes an announcement, observed Anthony Standen in his book Science Is a Sacred Cow:

"he may not be understood, but at least he is certain to be believed. No one ever doubts what is said by a scientist.”

Just as many Africans gullibly accept the word of the person who ‘reads the book,’ so the general public parrots the sayings of scientists as though they were gospel truth.

You can therefore appreciate that, when you hear or read something, it is necessary to weigh the evidence.

Always keep in mind that human authorities and people are subject to error, and that sometimes they are even dishonest.

Woman unable to start a conversation.

Everyone talks, so conversation is easy, right?


In fact the very thought of conversation, especially with a stranger, often causes embarrassment. 

An anxious stream of questions comes pouring in:

How do I break the ice? 

What should we talk about? 

What about my accent?

These and many other doubts assail the timid conversationalist.

What is the solution?

Suppose you are waiting for a bus.

It is evening and the sun is setting, casting its hues over the city. 

A stranger, a few feet away, is apparently lost in thought.

Just the two of you. 

What will it be—barrier or bridge?

Silence or conversation?

Some say the city is big and cold, but that sunset is just as beautiful here as it was in the little town where I grew up.

You have built the first arch of the bridge toward your neighbor.

In most cases he will respond, and the gap has been bridged. 

Of course, not everyone wants to talk.

But at least you extended the opportunity by using simple common ground—the beauty of a sunset. It has universal appeal.

But there is one thing to minimize in conversation, that is, YOURSELF.

Since the subject must appeal to your listener, the theme will seldom be YOU

To illustrate, there is the story of a conceited movie star who bored his host for an hour with all the trivia of his life since they last met, then concluded by saying: “Well, enough about me. Tell me, have you seen my latest movie?”

Avoid the egocentric approach.

So let the subject be, not you, and perhaps not even what you did, but what happened, what’s going to happen, the news, the weather, world events and how they affect you and your listener.

Of course, one thing is to have a subject of common interest, another is to present it in an attractive way.

Your listener must be helped to see matters as vividly as you do.

How can you do that? 

By talking about something you like with enthusiasm. 

If you find you have “struck gold” and your companion shares your enthusiasm then ask questions.

Draw him or her out.

The inter flow will benefit both of you.

“I have an accent”

Some feel they can never be good conversationalists because their speech does not follow accepted patterns of grammar or pronunciation. 

Foreign-born folk occasionally feel this way, saying:

You know I have an accent and maybe people don’t understand me too well.” 

In actual fact, many enjoy an unusual accent. 

For example, a Britisher who lived many years in Spain and Portugal commented:

Although I was conscious of my accent when speaking Spanish or Portuguese, it actually served to hold interest on many occasions. Sometimes a person might take a moment or two to tune in, but after that they were delighted that you had learned their language.”

In many countries a foreign accent is commonplace.

It doesn’t even raise an eyebrow. 

So don’t let your accent hinder you.

Instead, the fact that you come from a different country can give you an enormous reservoir of subjects and experiences.

In most countries different accents and dialects exist anyway.

They are all part of the fascinating variety found within the human family. 

Sometimes “big city” people enjoy listening to the “quaint” talk of rural folk, all the while unaware that the country folk are intrigued by the “strange” city talk! 

The really important point is that they are talking.

Is it hard to listen?

Listening is the other half of good conversation, and just as important as talking.

The problem is that some do not really listen. 

They just plan their next line of thought and wait to pounce in—often on a tangent with a different subject or mood.

That way conversation is converted into two disjointed monologues

Good listening shows good manners.

It considers with an open mind the viewpoints offered and ponders how these might influence present opinions. 

True sincerity then becomes evident.

Is the listener trying to hang on to a point of view at all cost?

Or does he recognize when a valid point has been made? 

Yes, sincerity and flexibility make for good conversation.

There has to be a reliable bond of confidence and trust, based on a meaningful exchange of thoughts and intimacies.

Sad to say, some seldom or never enjoy this intimate kind of talk.

They have a barbed tongue and veil insults with “wit.” 

People are uncomfortable around them because they never know when they will feel the tongue’s sharp edge. 

Yes, gracious conversation will never unnecessarily hurt another person’s feelings or undermine dignity.


So be a conversationalist.

Don’t be afraid to break down barriers and bridge gaps. 

Remember that conversation has been described as “the sweeter banquet of the mind,” “the feast of reason and the flow of soul.” 

So let your ‘soul flow’ by getting to know people and letting them know you.

And just one more point—don’t overwhelm your listener—know when to stop!

Construction worker.

Why avoid lack of interest?

How much can a person lacking interest in his job accomplish? 

Very little; yet it seems that many persons go about their work with a half-a-mind attitude, not much drive, enthusiasm or heart being shown.

Some regard work merely as a means, a boring means of providing income for pleasure, which to them is the real business of living.

No wonder many persons go about their daily work without a professional attitude towards what they are doing. They do the minimum amount of work required to collect their pay check.

Much energy that could be used on their work is often squandered complaining about the place and shortcomings of their job.

With only half-hearted interest in their work, they exert themselves very little to improve on themselves on their job.

For example, how do sales persons show lack of interest for their work?

Besides showing reluctance to answer reasonable questions that arise in a customer’s mind, they fail to take customer’s needs into consideration.

They may present products on a “here-it-is” and “take-or-leave-it” basis.

How will this affect the customers?

They will be more inclined to go elsewhere.

This is because people tend to go where someone is interested in them and their needs.

There are, of course jobs that have more appeal than others.

But just because the interest appeal of a job does not measure up to one’s expectation, does not mean that the work cannot be performed with full heart and determination.

There is no job in the world so dull that it would not present fascinating angles to the mind.

Every job may be looked upon as responsive to our ideal, inviting us to infuse new goodness into it.

Why be considerate?

On the other hand, interest for our work does mean we should not be considerate to others.

For example, an engineer after getting into a train locomotive to make some adjustments to a window noted that was dirty.

It was not his duty to clean windows, so he waited until the worker of the proper job classification arrived to do the job before he could do his.

The train was delayed.

Later, a spokesman for the railways institution when explaining the delay acknowledged that the engineer was within his rights to do that, but he said that he lacked consideration for others, even when it was apparent that thousands of passengers would be inconvenienced.

Hence, it is important to appreciate that work is not only about intelligence or efficiency, but also about sincerity of the heart and responding to what needs to be done.

One can achieve a happy state by putting oneself into whatever one is doing be it small or big.

The skills one has should not only affect his or her job positively, but also enhance the happiness of those who benefit from it.


Each one can take an interest, and should, in the work he finds it necessary to do to earn a livelihood for himself and those dependent upon him.

View it as presenting a challenge to you to keep doing ever better work or to do it ever more efficiently, and that whether you are a professional man or a laborer, an office worker or a housekeeper.

Experience the joy and satisfaction that come from doing a good job.

Putting petrol in the tank.

The number of families that own a car has steady increased over the last decade.

This means that gasoline is becoming a significant expense to more and more households

The annual gasoline expense of some households is quite high.

Certainly it is wonderful when the price of gasoline is cut.

Although the likelihood of this happening always is remote, there are ways of realizing benefits almost as dramatic as such a gasoline price cut.

How so?

By increasing the number of miles you are presently getting from a gallon of gas.

This can be done by practicing good driving habits and maintaining your car in proper running condition.

And perhaps by purchasing a more economical fuel.

Let us elaborate each of this fuel saving ways in more details.

1. Gas-saving driving habits

After testing several advertised gas saving gadgets, all of which failed to improve gas mileage substantially, Popular Science reports:

Our conclusions are that the best ways to save gas and get more power from your car are to keep it tuned to factory [specifications] and improve your driving skills.”

Another automotive specialist assessed the motorist’s skill as the “most important single controllable factor in driving economy.”

But what are good, gas-saving driving habits?

The most important of all is easy, smooth acceleration.

Avoid tramping on the gas pedal.

Every time you do, an excess of gasoline is poured into the engine, much of which is expelled through the exhaust unused.

So economy driving means developing a feather foot.

This will eliminate such practices as jackrabbit getaways, darting about in traffic and nervous pumps on the gas pedal while waiting for a signal light to change.

Some expert drivers say that they imagine there is an egg between their foot and the gas pedal, and they always press gently so as not to break it.

This habit of smooth, easy acceleration can add up to ten more miles per gallon from your gasoline.

By developing the related habit of evenness in driving speed, you may make such remarkable gas savings a reality.

The biggest enemy of economy is the brake pedal.

Too many drivers forget to synchronize speed with traffic lights.

Expert drivers alertly watch traffic conditions, anticipating well in advance any necessary change of pace.

In this way they hold stops, starts and gear shifting to a minimum and maintain the steadiest possible speed.

The brakes are used only when necessary.

You can drive the same way.

Practice it.

The next time you get behind the wheel of a car concentrate on using a feather foot on the gas pedal, and determine not to use the brakes unnecessarily.

That will mean observing the red traffic light a block or two ahead and coasting toward it, instead of continuing to accelerate.

By the time you reach the light it may turn green, and you can continue without stopping.

Remember: Every time you use your brake it will take extra gas to build up speed again.

It is also important to avoid staying in the lower gears for extended periods.

On most cars, low gear at 20 mph. uses about 50 percent more gasoline than high gear at the same speed.

An “economy run” winner driving a standard shift car said that he usually up shifted at 11 or 12 mph. and again at 20 to 22 mph.

Cruising speed is important, too, the most economical being from about 35 to 50 mph.

To drive at 80 mph. nearly doubles the cost of gasoline from What it would cost to cover the same number of miles at 40 m.p.h.

So develop an economic style of driving and realize the benefits.

Not only will you stretch your gasoline, but you will find the relaxed and unhurried frame of mind most welcome.

It is safer and much more restful.

2. Proper maintenance

Another way to save on money for gasoline is to have a regular spring and autumn engine tune-up.

Proper timing of the spark is vital to good gas mileage.

One faulty spark plug in a six-cylinder engine can waste as much as 16 percent of your gasoline.

Accurate adjustment of the idle speed screw to give a correct gasoline-air mixture will also save fuel.

A dirty air filter can add 10 percent to your gasoline bill, and a slow acting or stuck choke even more.

A good mechanic will check these and other matters when he tunes up your engine.

A simple thing that you can do to improve gas mileage is to keep the air in your tires up to specifications or slightly higher.

Under inflated tires are gas wasters.

3. Inexpensive gasoline

Finally, you may be able to shave more dollars off your annual gasoline bill by purchasing a less expensive type.

Gasoline prices depend primarily on octane number.

This number indicates a gasoline’s ability to burn properly in an engine without knocking, which is a series of sharp pings or clicks when you accelerate or climb a hill.

After comparing regular and premium gasoline the above-mentioned Science Digest concluded:

There is little significant difference between regular and premium except for octane rating.”

Therefore, if your car can burn the less expensive, lower octane gasoline without knocking, it is a waste of money to use more expensive fuels.

Since today’s regular gas has as high an octane rating as the premium gas of several years ago, most older cars can use regular satisfactorily.

Even many newer cars, particularly smaller ones, can run efficiently on gasoline's with lower-octane numbers.

It may pay for you to experiment with lower-octane gasoline.

However, it is poor economy to use a gasoline that causes engine knock.

So there are several ways to stretch your gasoline.

It is conceivable that with a little care and thought your family may be able to save on gasoline each year.

Child fear.

Power of fear of ridicule

A group of young people, having discovered this bottle of green liquid, thought it was drinkable and some of the youths ridiculed those who did not want to take a drink.

Of those that drank, three teenage boys became seriously ill and the seventeen-year-old girl died.

The green-colored liquid was antifreeze.

The dead girl’s father said:

"It was one of those things that teenagers call a 'chicken' incident which some of the kids would be called ‘chicken’ if they didn’t take a drink of liquor.”

Fear of ridicule has thus led to the death of innumerable persons.

It has caused young people to get into all kinds of difficulties, bringing grief to their parents.

Fear of such verbal missiles of ridicule as “chicken” or “sissy” or has spawned unimaginable tragedy.

Yet how often parents fail to train their children to inure their principles against the weapon of ridicule.

Fear of the sneer is a mighty factor in the behavior patterns of many adolescents and is responsible for the grave troubles in which many of them find themselves.

A young girl taught to treasure the purity of her body and person may surrender it to escape the contempt of unprincipled companions.

A boy impressed in his home with a respect for honor and virtue, can reap a lifetime of regret because of his peers.

Whenever a group of youngsters is convicted of a joint crime you may be sure that some of them participated mainly to avoid derision.

To their sorrow, they were misled to believe that conformity is wiser than the courting of ridicule.

Fear of the ridicule that is embodied in the sneer has downgraded integrity and enthroned cheating.

It has made the clergyman cautious in mentioning sin and parents reluctant to invoke discipline.

Fear of the shrieking of the mob is implanted in us in the ignorance of childhood.

It is preposterous that it retains its grip on us in the maturity of adulthood.

Why let the fear of ridicule be implanted in children?

Why not implant the proper fear?

Then when children grow up they will not be misled by the disastrous, deadly fear of ridicule.

Let parents be diligent, then, to train their children as to what to fear and what not to fear.

Ridicule is an impotent weapon when leveled at minds trained according to the voice of reason.

Two men who hate each other.

People are inherently selfish.

And selfishness, if not kept under control, can turn into hatred.

As if natural selfishness were not bad enough, human society actually trains people to be selfish!

Generalizations, of course, do not always apply, yet certain attitudes are too prevalent to be rejected as simply aberrations.

Are not politicians often more interested in winning elections than they are in helping their constituents?

Are not businessmen often more interested in making money, unscrupulously if necessary, than in preventing harmful products from reaching the market?

Are not clergymen often more interested in being popular or in gaining money than in guiding their flocks along paths of morality and love?

Games and violence

Video games featuring violence teach young people to solve problems the selfish way—simply eliminate the enemy!

Hardly an attitude that fosters love!

Over a decade ago, the U.S. surgeon general warned that video games posed a threat to young people.

He said:

"Everything is zap the enemy. There’s nothing constructive in the games.”

 A letter to The New York Times noted that many video games “pander to the basest instincts of man” and added:

They are cultivating a generation of mindless, ill-tempered adolescents.” 

A video-game fan from Germany was honest enough to admit the truthfulness of this latter statement when he said:

While playing them I was transferred into an isolated dream world where the primitive slogan applied: ‘Kill or be killed.’”

Race and violence  

When coupled with racism, hatred becomes ever more sinister.

Racist feelings nourish what nationalism teaches children from infancy, namely, that hating your nation’s enemies is not wrong.

An essay by George M. Taber, a Time contributor, noted:

Of all the political isms of history, perhaps the strongest is nationalism.” 

He went on to explain:

More blood has been shed in its name than for any other cause except religion. Demagogues for centuries have stirred up fanatical mobs by blaming all their troubles on some neighboring ethnic group.”

Long-standing hatred of other ethnic groups, races, or nationalities is behind many of the problems in today’s world.

Xenophobia and violence

Xenophobia, fear of strangers or foreigners, is on the increase.

Interestingly, however, a group of German sociologists discovered that xenophobia is most marked where few foreigners live.

This seems to prove that it is more often caused by prejudice than by personal experience.

“Young people’s prejudices are fostered mainly by their friends and families,” the sociologists found.

Indeed, 77 percent of those interviewed, even though they endorsed the prejudice, had no direct contact, or very little, with foreigners.

Indeed, teaching the lesson of selfishness is not difficult, for all of us have inherited a measure of selfishness.


It is natural for humans to love liberty.

But it is not wise to act too independently.

There must be a ‘give and take,’ for we need one another.

The very circumstances of life call for cooperation on the part of all of us.

"Illustrating the need for cooperation is the item that appeared in the New York Times captioned, “Swiss Deport U.S. Citizen in Dispute over His Home.”

He was deported because of getting involved in many disputes with the local authorities over petty things, such as insisting on building his home nine inches higher than the law permitted.

The government held that he was a troublemaker, who either was unable or unwilling to adapt himself to local ways.

How foolish to make issues over trifles, making trouble for oneself and others!

What caused him to act this way?

Too much of an independent attitude.

Obviously he lacked empathy; he was unable to put himself in the shoes of his Swiss hosts.

He wanted everything his own way, and so was deported because he could not fit in, refusing to cooperate with the local authorities.

It is an extreme case, which highlights a common human failing.

We cannot escape it.

Cooperation is the course of wisdom.

In fact, the animals might be said to teach us the wisdom of this course—although it is no credit to them, as they act from instinct and not from choice.

Thus a noted biologist, William A. Wheeler, in his book Philosophical Biology points out that there is something fundamentally social in all living things, and that;

"this must be a characteristic of all life, since every organism is at least temporarily associated with other organisms.”

He writes that this is true even “of such supposedly unsocial animals as lions, eagles, sharks, tiger beetles and spidersThere are, in fact, no truly solitary organisms.”

According to one of America’s leading anthropologists, Ashley-Montague, among lower animals cooperation is far more pronounced and important than competition for survival.

While lower animals cooperate instinctively, it is human’s glory that they can cooperate volitionally, out of choice.

Cooperation has been defined as ‘the act of working with another or others to a common end.’

Implicit in cooperation, then, is a goal worth seeking to attain, and it requires that we be willing to yield or “give” for the sake of realizing that goal.

In other words, it means the giving up of little things for the sake of bigger things.

For example, a man and a woman wed for the purpose of happy family life.

For either to insist on having his or her own way, or limiting cooperation to one’s own terms, would be to frustrate the purpose and shut out family happiness.

Yet how often we find married persons doing that very thing, robbing themselves and their mates of happiness by refusing to cooperate on terms other than their own!

For example, a wife might prevail upon her husband to go visiting her relatives, but if he is not particularly fond of them he may do little, if anything, to make the visit a truly enjoyable one.

Then, again, a husband might want to bring some friends home for supper, or he might want a certain food.

But if his wife does not particularly like those friends or that food, she may go about preparing the meal in an indifferent, routine way, refusing to give wholehearted cooperation, to underscore how she feels about it.

How far short each is coming of doing to the other as he would have the other do to him!

Yes, and also how foolish!

For even as we cannot make others happy without making ourselves happy, so we cannot make others miserable by refusing to cooperate without making ourselves miserable

Or it may be at your place of employment that the question of cooperation comes up.

The way a certain thing is being done may not make sense to you, but that is no reason for not doing your part, and that to the best of your ability.

If the course pursued is not a wise one, most likely time will tell, but in the meantime give it an opportunity to succeed by doing all you can to make it succeed.

Especially is this matter of cooperation important where voluntary work is concerned.

Where there is a mutual effort for the common good and each one contributes freely of his or her services or goods, there is often the tendency to take oneself too seriously and to feel free to limit one’s cooperation when things are not being done as one would like to see them done, or when one is not given what one feels to be a sufficiently prominent role.

Here might be said to be a test of loyalty to the cause, group or organization.

Yes, to limit your cooperation to your own terms can cause the loss of many friends.

In fact, where no principle of justice would be violated, there always is a blessing in yielding one’s preferences for the sake of others or the common good.

So do not limit your cooperation to your own terms.

Be willing to sacrifice self-will for the sake of mutual well-being and happiness.