How to prevent motion sickness?

A man feels the motion of a train.

All too familiar to many ocean travelers is the sickening feeling that comes when a ship encounters heavy seas.

As the ship goes up and down, rolling at the same time to the right and to the left, a passenger’s stomach seems to rise into his throat and then drop into his shoes.

The walls of his cabin seem to swim about his head.

He breaks out into a cold sweat and takes on a greenish pallor.

Wave after wave of nausea sweeps over him.

He retches until his insides feel as if they are tearing apart.

Feeling violently ill, he loses interest in everything about him, including life itself.

The torment of motion sickness transforms what could have been a delightful trip into a nightmare.

A traveler flying in a plane high above the ship passenger might feel like congratulating himself for not being on the rough ocean below and prostrated with seasickness.

But when his plane encounters turbulent air, he may not feel so self satisfied.

As the plane is tossed about, dropping suddenly like an elevator and rising just as suddenly, he feels the same sickening“ up-and-down pressure on his stomach that the traveler on the ocean liner feels.

A feeling of nausea can come over him and grow worse as the plane banks suddenly.

The cabin seems to spin about him.

Before long he frantically reaches for the special paper bag kept in the seat pocket in front of him.

Airsickness can be every bit as unpleasant as seasickness.

Whether on the ocean or in the air, the traveler can be made miserably ill by motion, but people differ in sensitivity to it.

Sensitivity to motion

Picture of a train in motion.

Some persons are so sensitive to motion that they get sick when riding in a train or a car or even when sitting in a swing.

Others may not be affected until they begin reading while they are moving.

Still others can get sick when sitting still in a movie house watching a motion picture taken from a plane or a roller coaster.

Motion sickness can be triggered by what the eyes see as well as by what the body feels. For some unknown reason it affects women more than men.

Women travelers are five to ten times more sensitive to motion sickness than are adult males.

This is especially true with airsickness.

Half-grown children have about the same sensitiveness, whereas children under two years of age do not appear to be affected at all.

Young men between the ages of seventeen and nineteen seem to be three times as sensitive to it as males over thirty years of age.

This does not mean that adult males do not succumb to motion sickness; they do, but not as readily as other persons. In fact, 90 to 100 percent of all people are subject to some form of this sickness.

Immunity to one form does not necessarily mean immunity to other forms of it.

Cause of motion sickness

An old woman sensitive to motion.

There is uncertainty as to what actually causes motion sickness.

Those who think it is psychosomatic are faced with vehement denials by persons who have suffered it.

The use of sugar-pill placebos has not stopped people from getting sick.

In one test on military fliers 20 percent of those taking sugar-pill placebos got sick.

While there are instances of people becoming sick because they thought they would, evidence points to something more than imagination as the cause.

The cause appears to lie in the central nervous system.

The nerves of the eyes, nose and internal organs contribute to the squeamish feeling associated with the various forms of motion sickness.

The principal contributors appear to be the nerves associated with a person’s sense of balance.

These are connected with the labyrinth in each ear where semicircular canals filled with fluid play a major role in the mechanism of balance.

Confirming the relation of motion sickness with the labyrinth is the fact that persons whose ear labyrinths do not function never suffer motion sickness.

Some motions of a plane or ship are more distressing than others.

Pitching and heaving movements, for example, are more likely to cause sickness than rolling movements.

The same is true when the craft makes repeated moves in more than one direction.

Motion in the walls, floor and ceiling of a cabin is especially sickening when the passenger is unable to orient himself by looking at a distant object through a window or porthole.

During World War II it was found that 80 percent of the airsickness suffered by bomber crews was among men in the navigators’ compartment.

These men usually occupied compartments Where they could not orient themselves by looking outside.

When they went to another part of the plane where they could see the horizon or distant objects on the ground, they often felt improved. '

Other aggravating factors can be the reading of line print in a moving vehicle, indigestion, too much alcohol, hunger, overeating, lack of ventilation, a cabin that is too warm, noise and vibration, the smell of food or engine fumes, and so forth.

Just the sight of a person who is sick can make an uneasy feeling in the stomach become worse.

Naturally preventing motion sickness

Seating next to an airplane window.

Motion sickness is not necessarily inevitable for you when you travel.

There are ways you can prevent it.

On a plane, for example, be careful about choosing the location of your seat.

Remember that a seat near the front or tail tends to have more motion than near the wings. Select a window seat on the right side near the wings.

Seats on the left side of a plane are bad for sensitive persons.

The plane usually banks to the left when it turns because the pilot sits on that side and can see better by banking in that direction.

The ground dips and swirls past the eyes of the passengers on that side whenever the plane banks.

This aggravates any feeling of nausea.

Sitting next to a window has an advantage over sitting next to the aisle.

It allows you to keep yourself oriented by permitting you to look out the window.

When you look out fix your eyes on distant objects that appear to be fixed.

These might be distant mountains, cloud formations or even the horizon.

Avoid looking at the nearby landscape or clouds, allowing them to swim past your field of vision.

That will make any tendency toward sickness much worse.

Perhaps you have noticed this sickening effect from an automobile when electicity poles flashed by at a blurring speed.

It is wise to avoid overeating before taking a trip.

Food in itself will not cause motion sickness, but too much food in the stomach can contribute to it.

On the other hand, it is equally unwise to fast.

An empty stomach can have just as bad an effect as a stomach that is too full.

The best course to take is to eat the food you normally do, in a moderate amount.

Start your trip with a comfortable stomach.

If you feel a bit upset, recline your seat as much as you can and rest your head on the headrest.

Keep it in one position.

The fewer head movements you make the better off you will be.

Oftentimes a feeling of nausea will pass away when the head is kept steady against a headrest.

If the up-and-down motion of the plane makes your stomach feel as if it is sliding up and down inside of you, take a deep breath and hold it when the plane hits a downdraft.

That will tend to compress your abdominal organs and reduce the feeling of movement. These suggestions

Will also prove helpful to passengers on an ocean liner.

When you begin to feel sick on a ship, get out of your cabin and go out on deck.

Recline in a deck chair, keeping your head steady.

Do not look at the moving deck and waves in the foreground.

Fix your eyes on the distant horizon.

Very likely this will cause the sick feeling to pass.

In the event that you finally succumb to seasickness, you can figure on about three days of lessening misery before you become adjusted to the motion of the ship.

After that you should be all right unless the sea becomes rougher.

Only about 3 to 5 percent of the passengers on ocean liners fail to make this adjustment.


Picture of drugs.

It was not until motion sickness incapacitated large numbers of fighting men during World War II that medical science began deep research on the problem.

In 1943, Canadian researchers produced a drug that worked satisfactorily in preventing motion sickness.

A few years later an antihistamine accidentally proved effective when it stopped carsickness in a patient who was being treated for.

As might be expected, the drugs have some bad side effects.

They sometimes cause blurred vision and drowsiness, depending upon how much is taken.

To be most effective in preventing motion sickness, it is necessary to begin taking one of these drugs from a half hour to one hour before you start your trip and then at specific intervals thereafter.

Usually the effect of one pill will last for about four hours.

When taken after you have become sick, it is less effective.

Whether you will use one of these drugs or try the less certain methods for preventing motion sickness is something you will have to decide for yourself.

You know your own sensitivity to it.

In any event, there is no reason to fear a delightful trip by train, ship or plane when ways exist for you to prevent motion sickness.

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How to avoid unintentionally sow discontent?

Illustration of a sad face.

Here are those who deliberately sow discontent.

They usually have an ulterior motive, such as “to divide and conquer.”

It is a method used by political rulers and ruthless power hungry businessmen, obviously no person of good nature and who loves his neighbor as himself will deliberately sow discontent.

He will not scheme to make others discontented with their lot, causing them to take a foolish course from which he may personally profit.

But unless one is careful he may unwittingly sow discontent in the hearts of others.

How so?

By coming short in empathy, in ability to put oneself in the other fellow’s place.

For example, one may unwittingly sow discontent by discussing the failings or shortcomings of others.

Suppose one tells a husband of some minor indiscretion or blunder made by his wife, which she tried to keep from him, knowing how it would affect him.

Would not his knowing about it tend to make him discontented with his wife and less inclined to make the best of things?

Or a mother may be critical of her husband’s business judgments and express this before their children.

Will this not tend to make them discontented with what their father provides?

Thus unwittingly one may sow discontent, and that right within the family circle.

The remedy?


Empathy for a friend.

Putting ourselves in the place of the one adversely affected by our remarks will help us to keep from making them.

Someone may come to us with a grievance, fancied or real.

If, without considering the result, we unhesitatingly agree with the grieved one and try to make him feel good by adding merit to his cause, we may be unwittingly increasing his discontent.

It may be that the grieved one is already feeling too sorry for himself.

Perhaps the thing to do is to try to help him to see the other side of the case.

It may actually be something trivial.

No harm or injury may have been intended.

By emphasizing this we can help to sow contentment instead of abetting discontent.

Closely related to the foregoing is the sowing of discontent unwittingly by giving expression to one’s own discontent.

Murmuring or complaining is contagious and  sows discontent.

Our friends are prone to take our side and by doing so they may become discontented with conditions over which they have no control.

Then again, one might unwittingly sow discontent by stirring up rivalry, competition and the spirit of vain glory, causing some to want to outshine their fellows.

Others may have been content with their lot, making progress, though not in a competitive spirit, but if one betrays an inordinate or extreme desire to excel, to eclipse others, this will awaken in them the spirit of rivalry, resulting in discontent.

Thoughtlessness on our part may at times cause us to be lacking in modesty and this also may cause us unwittingly to sow discontent.

Success may come easily or naturally to us, but if we are prone to boast of it or to harp on it we may cause others, less favored, to feel discontent.

There is nothing. wrong with asking others to rejoice in the good things that happen to come your way, but unless you are modest about it, it can be taken for boasting about your abilities and so make others feel discontented.

We might also sow discontent by the way we dress.

If, forgetting modesty, we were to dress in such a way as to draw undue attention to our material: means of life, making ourselves stand out in contrast to those with.whom we are associating, we might find that we were unwittingly fostering discontent among our associates, and perhaps even a bit of resentment.

Or one may unwittingly sow discontent by being partial, by showing favoritism, by making class distinctions, or by betraying racial or national prejudice.

Yes, by showing partiality, by manifesting discrimination or betraying prejudice one makes others less content with their lot, thus sowing discontent.

In view of there being so much of this in the world it would be well if all lovers of righteousness would lean over backward,as it were, to avoid any trace of these unfavorable traits so that these usually discriminated against may at least for a time forget it, making for more happiness.

So let each one be careful to avoid sowing discontent, even unwittingly.

Thoughtfulness, fellow feeling or empathy will enable one to unwittingly sow discontent.

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How your body build affects your health?

A plus size black lady.

What is the relationship between body build type of body build and one's health?

Studies indicate that each type of body build has its strong points, its tendencies, its dangers and its distresses.

Researchers point out that there is a greater frequency of some diseases in persons exhibiting a predominance of a particular body build.

Thus the knowledge of the general relationship between body build and health may provide the basis for some preventive measures and at the same time throw some light on why it has been said that one man’s meat is another’s poison.

The combination of weight and height of a person results in a general build of body called habitus.

This word is defined as:

 “the body build and constitution, especially, as related to predisposition to disease.” 

There are three general divisions.

The heavy ones, usually high in what is called endomorphy; the medium or muscular ones, usually high in mesomorphy; and the thin ones, usually high in ectomorphy.

The study of body build in relation to health is being given increasing consideration these days.

It will be interesting to examine what some researchers have found in this matter, both as to disease susceptibilities and health assets.

Digestive system dominant 

A plus size white lady.

This is known as endomorphy, with this body build the abdomen is bulkier than the chest and the limbs are comparatively short.

Those high in this body component are said to have splendid digestion; they can enjoy a heavy meal that would make a thin person most uncomfortable.

With the endomorph build usually comes an unusual freedom from nervous disorders.

Relaxation comes easily.

Sleep also comes easily and is deep.

Dr. Sheldon reports that those high in this body type can get along with less sleep than those of ectomorphic (thin) build.

He states, however, that those of endomorphic build often get too much sleep.

Hence those of this body type need to guard against the tendency to sleep in overdoses, a tendency that can become habitual.

Studies indicate that this body type does not often fall into the snare of overdoing exercise, since there seems to be a tendency to dislike vigorous exercise.

This body build is said to “work off” less food by exercise than others.

Food‘ is said to be. a sheer delight for those of this body type, and almost any kind can be eaten

Without difficulty, including coarse foods and fibers.

Midget meals do not seem to lit the capacious digestive tract of these persons, and they seem to do well with a moderate breakfast and two fairly large meals a day.

There is a tendency, as Dr. Sheldon puts it, for these persons to eat “more than is conducive to [their] best mental. development.”

Moreover, if they are not carefully moderate in food, especially with fats, oils, creams, sugars and gravies, they may easily put on thirty or more pounds every five years until middle life.

Though persons high in other body types may regulate their intake and output of energy quite automatically, a person high in endomorphy often cannot rely on his automatic regulations and may need to follow a dietary regimen prescribed by a physician, if he wishes to avoid the consequences of his constitutional trait.

What about the goal of an ultra-slim figure for those of endomorphic build?

They should remember that a relatively heavy build is natural to their body type, and as Dr. H. J . Berglund writes:

Weight tables, as published by insurance companies and publicized on penny scales, are of little value. Even the recent breakdown into three different tabulations for slight, medium, and heavy skeletons, does not make them individual enough. A person with small bones is probably an endomorph who is more likely to be healthy with a heavy load than many with more expansive skeletons.” 

Taking special precaution to guard against overdieting, overeating and oversleeping is thought to be beneficial for those high in this body type.

Bones and muscle system dominant 

A muscular man.

This is called mesomorphy.

Those high in this body type have heavy bones and well-developed muscles.

They may be heavy but not overweight.

As a group these persons are said to be endowed with an unusually rich health capital.

Among their health assets are tremendous physical drive and endurance, with a relatively low sleep requirement, all of which gives them not only more energy than others but more time.

Another benefit is said to be infrequent food requirements, so that they often can go a long time without the thought of food.

Still another benefit of this body build is said to be the relative immunity to common nervous disorders.

There is a natural love for exercise on the part of those high in mesomorth; and since this body build benefits most from exercise, there may be a tendency to overdo it, spending too much time on bodily training.

Hence persons of this body type need to watch that the craving for exercise does not get out of hand, consuming valuable time that should be devoted to more essential things.

If the food habits of youth persist through middle age for persons high in this body build, body fat may accumulate.

Hence it may be necessary for many persons of this type to go easy on oils, fats, creams, gravies and concentrated sugars.

Since high blood pressure is quite common among persons prominent in mesomorphy, they are usually advised to take special care to avoid dangerous emotions, such as jealousy, resentment, anger and rage.

Skin and nervous system dominant 

A slim and tall girl.

Those high in ectomorphy often have long limbs and delicate bones, long neck, small stomach and a relatively short digestive tract.

Thus the large, heavy meal may overload the small stomach of these persons, causing great discomfort.

They are said to do better with many small meals through the day.

Some studies indicate that persons high in ectomorphic build are relatively free from appendicitis, gall-bladder disorders, nephritis and many infections, except those of the upper respiratory tract.

Persons of this body type are said to have a lower degree of heart and arterial diseases than those of the other two body types, and so they are often regarded by insurance companies as excellent mortality risks.

Weight gains often are only three or four pounds after adolescence, so that the weight curve is consistent with long life expectancy.

Tenseness is said to be common among those of this group, and there is usually a hypersensitivity to insect bites, sometimes a tendency to unexplained itching.

Because those high in ectomorphy present a relatively larger body surface to the impacts of environment, the result is greater energy expenditures, coupled with the fact that there is less opportunity for accumulation of reserves (fat, protein, water, etc.).

The main susceptibility of the group is that of fatigue, caused partly by the fact that the digestive tract is poorly upheld.

Though exercise to strengthen the abdominal muscles is recommended for this group, Dr. Sheldon points out:

“Unnecessary vigorous exercise, instead of building up energy in these people, seems to exhaust the already scanty reserve and to leave them inefficient victims of chronic fatigue.” 

Despite the tendency toward fatigue, Dr. Sheldon adds that these persons may be just as zealous in their activities as those who have greater energy potential, but those of ectomorphic build may not be able to carry through as well as those with the heavier build.

Because of limitations on their energy, coupled with a zeal that may be as intense as those of mesomorphic build, those of this body type may sometimes experience feelings of frustration and dissatisfaction.

More sleep is required for those high in this body component, and they must exercise caution in such matters as socializing and staying up late at night.

Sometimes persons of this body type succumb to a nervous breakdown before they realize that they cannot keep up with the late hours and pace of those with stronger builds.

Thus Dr. Logan Clendening writes in his book The Human Body:

What can be done to help guide a constitutionally thin or heavy person past his dangers? Considering the inherent difficulties of the task, a good deal. For the ones we have called the thin people . . . they should sooner or later be brought to a realization of the very important fact for them that they have not the same powers of endurance as other people with stronger structures. This sounds very logical as put down here, but it is astonishing how long it takes some of these people to come to this conviction, how much turmoil they go through, how many diagnoses are pronounced upon them. My colleagues in the medical profession have been very slow to grasp this idea of the whole man. Rest for certain periods in the day sufficient to renew the stores of energy which these bodies need is the first element in treatment or adjustment. . . . Other accessories to treatment ’ are exercise to strengthen the abdomen-lying on the back and raising the legs to a vertical position-the wearing of supporting corsets, and an increased diet to fatten up persons of this type. . . . The heavy ones . . . must learn to be abstemious at the table.” 

Further suggestions are given in the volume Constitution and Disease for those predisposed to nervous disorders.

It is conceivable that those predisposed to [disorders] of the nervous system may be benefited by vitamin B in doses larger than those required by normal individuals. . . . [With reference to persons of various builds he said:] Regulation of diet, habits, mode of life, advice concerning choice of profession, periodic examination with regard to the individual morbid predisposition, physical and mental hygiene, are the means at our disposal for making up for what nature has denied to certain individuals.” 

Moderation in all habits will do much to help a person of any body build combat adverse predispositions.

And yet, as we have seen, what may be moderate for one body type may well be excessive for another.

Each one must use good judgment in determining.

And this includes moderation in the use of knowledge concerning health matters, preventive measures, and so forth.

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