How to be a fun dad?

Father and child having fun.

Fathers are often completely surprised at the pleasure and enjoyment they receive from playing with their children.

But why should they be?

Is this not natural?

The value of such warm, close companionship and fun sharing during a child’s formative years should never be underestimated, for its contributions for good are great.

Fatherhood not only calls for love, integrity, courage and knowledge, but also requires a sharing of these qualities daily with those who depend on the father for their future.

Obviously, dad cannot be a real father, unless, of course, he is at home in body and mind.

When he is, it is then that he is happiest.

Father fun time with kids


Father and child on a swing.

But what can fathers do to enjoy their children?

And where will a hardworking father 'find the time for such activity'?

There are 168 hours in a week for each of us.

The average man spends about 40 of them at his secular work.

Allow another 20 hours for traveling time and lunch.

Then set l aside 56 hours, eight each ; night, for sleep. 

That adds up 4 to 116 hours, which leaves father 52 hours for eating, relaxing, or whatever else he wants to do.

Surely in those 52 hours should be able to set aside some time to be with his children.

But how many do it?

Not many.

Some father retort, "What can l do ?" l'm too old to play with children."

But playing with children is the very thing that keeps a man’s spirit from growing old.

And as for things to do, there are aplenty.

For example, there are games fathers can play with their children.

These can be played during mealtime, at bedtime or on weekends.

Some can be played while riding in a car, others while taking a walk.

The game “Chain Geography,” for instance, can be played using names of places.

A player begins by naming a country, territory, city, sea, river or something similar.

The other player then has to come up with another name that starts with the last letter of the preceding word.

Children and adults find this game great fun.

Another game is one in which a letter is called out and others add to the letter until a word is spelled or they add to it without spelling a word.

For instance, father may say H, Junior O, mother L. 

Now if sister were to say Y or E or D that would spell a word and she would either win or lose depending on how the game was played.

Quiz games are also enjoyable.

Father starts off saying, “I’m thinking of someone,” or, “I’m thinking of something.”

The children will try to find out what he is thinking, in twenty questions or less.

Or son will say, “Dad, you’re ‘it.’ ”

Now father must try to find out what “it” is.

So he will ask, “Where do I live? Do I build nests? Can I swim?”

The game continues until the other player guesses who he is or gives up.

There seems to be a game for every mood and moment.

Children enjoy playing checkers and become very adept too.

To turn checkers into a quick-moving romp try playing “give-away.”

The player tries to get rid of all his checkers as quickly as possible.

The first to do so is the winner.

Scrabble and anagrams test spelling and vocabulary.

Dominoes emphasize number adding and matching.

Chinese checkers is a game of jumping but not taking.

There are games to play with pencil and paper and games to play with other equipment.

Father may not think so, but when junior is sick in bed, a few moments of dad’s attention is some of the best medicine in the world.

When visiting with son bring along an old camera or clock and spend a few minutes tinkering with it together.

It is always good to spring some new riddle or story or some mental teaser.

Children never seem to get enough of these.

And if sister is in bed, try putting a jigsaw puzzle together with her or work a simple crossword puzzle

These things mean a lot to children and parents.

Having fun outdoors

Father and daughter hiking.

Most children like to play outdoor games with father.

Playing catch with a ball, hiking or climbing a hill are always great fun.

If you live near the seashore, go shell hunting with your children.

Teach them to listen to the surf roll in.

Sit in the pitch darkness of the night and thrill at the sight of the moon rise.

Observe its silvery reflections and dark shadows.

Watch sunrises and sunsets with them.

The memory of such scenes, photographed on the child’s mind, will mean more to him in manhood than many hour lectures on nature and good behavior.

A child’s world is fresh, new and exciting.

Here is a father’s chance to relive and recapture through the eyes of a growing child some of that excitement he once knew.

For a child to appreciate and wonder nature it needs the companionship of an adult who is willing to share his knowledge and experience.

If a father allows himself this experience he will rediscover a joy often lost to men of age.

Exploring nature with your child is deeply rewarding.

This is not a huge project; rather, it is a matter of becoming receptive to and aware of what lies around you.

For no matter where you live there are clouds and stars, the beauties of the dawn and the twilight.

If you train your child to appreciate things through all his senses, you will be keeping your own appreciation alive.

The sand grains of the seashore mean more to him if he sees them run through his fingers or looks at them under a magnifying glass.

He will not forget moss if he feels its velvety surface.

Have him distinguish the different fragrances as he walks with you through the forest.

Have him sniff seaweeds, iishes and salt water.

Train him so he can tell their separate odors.

Has he come to appreciate the smell of new mown hay or grass after a warm summer rain?

Has he tasted clover blossoms, wild grapes and blackberries?

To watch him thrill as you lead him through every new experience of life will bring joy to your heart.

Hearing too requires conscious cultivation.

Some children pass through life with out hearing the dawn chorus of the birds in the spring.

Never let this happen to your children.

Wake them up some morning and have them watch with you the daybreak.

The experiences of predawn are unforgettable.

The soft sounds of the wind, the happy ripple of a brook and the songs of birds are some of the never-to be forgotten sounds.

Someday hold your boy’s hand as together you watch a thunderstorm.

He will sense your fearlessness and learn courage thereby.

When he is around, look at things and speak of them with appreciation and keen interest, and he will learn to wonder and appreciate the world he lives in.

In such companionship your child will find joy and you will find inner contentment and a renewed excitement in living.

Having fun indoors

Father and son playing table tennis indoors.

Fathers can enjoy their children indoors as well as outdoors.

One way is by teaching them to become collectors of things.

Persons who collect things are unusually happy, because they live in so many places; that is, their imagination sweeps the wide world wherever things are found.

Some collect stamps and coins, others gather unusual shells, stones, leaves and flowers.

Collectors always have something in common to talk about.

Can’t you just see Junior’s excitement when he sees father?

“Dad! Guess what I have found!”

And away they go happily engrossed in conversation, discussing junior’s recent find.

Collections mean display cases and labeling.

The cases become filled with a variety of lovely flowers, shells and rocks.

Theirs is a miniature family museum.

These things will make them think of the places they have visited, things they have seen and the people they have met.

The coins and stamps they collect will remind them of faraway people and strange customs.

Fathers find delight in teaching children how to grow plants and flowers inside the home.

Children thrill in watching things grow.

Home aquariums and terrariums never cease to amuse both father and son.

Fish and underwater plant life are fascinating to watch.

In terrariums pet rabbits and turtles are kept.

Vegetable gardens are fine if there is a backyard.

Children will take a keen interest in gardening if parents will.

Home grown radishes, carrots, peas, beans and tomatoes always add new excitement to the dinner table. 

Display cases, flower boxes, terrariums and aquariums may also make you want to have a workshop.

Designing and creating things for home use are things children never forget.

While the workshop is a place of serious business, it is a marvelous place to teach children the value of tools, the need to keep them clean and in their proper places.

Junior can help in making snack trays or a bulletin board for the home.

Let him observe and help you make a wastepaper basket for the kitchen, or shelves for your cases.

Train him so he can make his own pencil holder and magazine rack.

Have him assist you whenever possible. 

His joy will be your great reward.

According to your own abilities, you can teach him to work with wood, leather, plastics, cork, aluminum, ceramic clay, cloth or copper.

Train him to use a saw, how to hammer, carve and whittle, grind and polish, bake clay, draw and paint.

While instructing him your own skills will be kept alive.

Yours will be the greater joy for having trained someone you love.

Having fun on when learning 

Father and child touring.

“Hey, Dad,. how about going somewhere?”

“Okay,” says father, “where shall we go?”

“Anyplace.”

But anyplace will never do.

Take the children to some specific place that they will remember.

While children never seem to tire of zoos and museums, of merry go-rounds and picnics, there is no need to go repeatedly to these places.

Why not take them to a paper mill or a newspaper publishing plant on occasion?

Let them see firsthand how paper is made and how newspapers are printed.

Children like ice cream and chocolate, so why not take them to ice-cream and chocolate factories?

A trip to the airport, a tour of an automobile factory, a visit to the city library, will enlarge their appreciation and better equip them for later life.

Spend a weekend on a poultry or dairy farm or visit a soda bottling plant.

A trip to the courthouse, a few hours at a trial and a tour of the city jail may teach children greater appreciation for law and order.

A few hours at a children’s hospital may make them aware of caring for their health and the need to be more careful and sympathetic toward others.

Is there a flower festival in town, an auto show, maybe a county or state fair nearby?

Any of these would be a joy to children.

There is no end of things that can be done without making repeated trips to the zoo or museum or simply watching television.

Talking, reading and singing together

Children love to know what father did when he was their age.

How did he have fun?

Where did he go?

What books did he read?

How did he meet mother?

So talk to them.

They enjoy dad’s getting them ready for bed and his few words with them until they fall asleep. 

The bedtime custom in many homes is for the father to read a chapter or two of the book aloud to his children before going to bed.

Some families sit in a circle.

Father will read a page, then mother, then each of the children will take turns in reading.

Every now and then the family will have a little songfest of their own.

They sing folk songs and some of the old time favorites.

Karaoke music, with everybody making gestures to suit the words, is always lots of fun.

Sometimes father can watch movies at home with his family.

Films are stocked with comedy, nature and instructive shorts on just about any subject you can name.

A father’s life does not have to be boring.

There are plenty of things for him to do that would add spice to his life, if he would but reach out and do them.

They are essential foods for a happy family life.

For some of the most profound satisfactions in a father’s life arise, not so much from his success in the business world as from his being truly a father to his children.

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Benefits and disadvantages of working at sea

Working at sea.

Why would anyone want to be working at sea ?

On the other hand, seafarers often ask, why would any person want to work in a factory or an office entombed away from the refreshing beauties of the great outdoors?

Why would anyone want to be a subway train conductor or work in a mine where he must forego the fresh air and sunlight of the great outdoors?

Questions such as these serve to highlight the difference of ideas that people have on the subject of employment.

On the surface of things the seafarer's lot may appear infinitely better than that of the person who is forced to sweat life out in a foundry or mine or who is obliged from day to day to face an insatiable public in a store or shop.

But every experienced seafarer knows that appearances are extremely deceiving, that life itself, whether on land or at sea, is not to be judged by appearances.

The reasoning person search should be for truth.

Behind the thinking of the young person who is contemplating a life at sea there may very well be visions of exotic lands, a life of ease with good pay, free of weighty responsibilities and loaded with adventure.

Any seafarer worth his salt will tell you that those are dreams, and dreams, while they may contain some truth, usually differ drastically from the stark realities.

This is not to say that life at sea does not have its good points, for it does.

Sea life can have its adventurous interludes.

The sea itself fills men with awe and wonder, and some of the port cities are among the most fascinating in the world.

Nevertheless, what we want to do is equate sea life with the facts.

The person behind a desk in some office in a large city may be prone to envision sea life in glowing romantic terms, perhaps as an escape from tight schedules, traffic jams, carbon monoxide gases or a nagging wife.

The young person in the factory may regard life at sea as a haven from the dreaded monotony.

Of the production line, and the farmer boy may see this life as a flight from boring chores.

While all of those outlooks might lead people to the sea, none of them reflect an honest appraisal of sea life.

For at sea there are schedules to be met and boring chores just as there are on land.

Rewards and fears

Enjoying sea waves.

But life at sea does have its rewards.

For example, the hashes of the sun at it's rising and setting make the ocean astonishingly beautiful.

The sounds of the waves are most awesome and varied.

There are the hollow boomings and heavy roarings, great watery tumblings, hissings and seethings, sharp, rifle-shot reports, splashes and whispers.

Every mood of the wind, every change in the weather, every phase of the tide has its own peculiar attraction.

Yet with the various tinges of the sea, the polar lights in the north and in the south, the myriads of stars and meteors, still these natural wonders are no more influential toward making a seafarer a good person than the sight of a rising sun or beaming stars is to a factory worker on vacation.

On land as well as at sea, it is our own attitude that really counts.

There are tranquil and spellbinding moments at sea.

But this is only one side of the story.

What about the other side?

There are also frightening and terrifying realities that are not so widely publicized, and these are as much a part of sea life as a boatswain’s whistle.

There is no denying that sunsets and sunrises are beautiful to behold, but what about the endless days that are buried in bleak wintry gloom, when the raging sea resembles stampeding mountains and the ship struggles to keep from being torn to pieces or from being buried beneath the waves?

Icebergs do reflect a breathtaking brightness against a black sea.

But have you ever been near them in a North Atlantic gale when your ship was tossed and pitched like a feather in a hurricane and your very life and the life of everyone on the ship depended on evading those treacherous masses of ice?

Have you been aboard when the ship’s deck was caked with tons of ice, when waves like angry mountains made each groan sound like the ship’s very last as it plunged in and out of the sea?

During moments like these there is very little that is romantic about sea life.

The office worker would welcome the sight of an office, and the boy, his father’s farm.


The demands and dangers

Picture of a shipwreck.

Have you ever considered how demanding and dangerous sea life can be?

At times the seafarer must face unbearable humidity, violent winds, solar radiation, frequent changes of climate, insufficient sleep, poisoning effects of the cargoes by development of gases and the so-called “metalplate disease” (a harmful effect on man caused by fields of terrestrial magnetism acting on iron pieces of the ship).

Add to this the fact that by long tradition the captain has the final say on matters.

Woe betide the seafarer who runs afoul of the ship’s master.

Every year some ship vessels disappear at sea.

These mysterious losses involve some crew members also.

Of course, there are disasters on land, too, mine disasters, explosions and other industrial accidents. 

But at least land disasters can be analyzed and steps taken to avoid repetition.

What can be done about ships that are mysteriously swallowed up by the sea?

Why, then, the sea?

Attracted to sea work.

A seafarer’s life, perhaps, can best be described as an isolating experience.

It is a life confined in a vessel of cold steel, which rocks and rolls, pitches and tosses, sways and vibrates.

It is often a life of deep loneliness, agonizing solitude and frequent hours of absolute boredom.

Wrote one ship commander after years at sea:

“I remember only one man who walked his deck with a springy step, and gave the first course of the passage in an elated voice. But he, as I learned afterwards, was leaving nothing behind him, except a welter of debts and threats of legal proceedings.”

This is not to say that there are no exceptions to the rule, for there are, but not many.

There are seafarer who say that the water is their element.

These men boast that for them really to feel at home is for them to live on the ocean waves.

Some old-timers were born at sea, and at sea is where they would prefer to end their days.

Veteran sailors tell us that there are moments at sea when life can be unforgettably beautiful.

It can be a great doctor, say they, for sore hearts and sore heads.

Cares, they feel, seem to be left astern as easily as the light air bubbles in the swirls of the ship’s wake.

Nothing, it appears, but a gale can disturb the orderly serenity of life when all is well at sea.

But these moments must be weighed in the light of all the other factors when considering a life at sea.

Sober reflections

Thinking about sea career.

There are serious considerations to bear in mind.

For example, ask yourself, is a seafarer’s life a life for a family ?

The person might reason that he or she provides well for the family.

But are material considerations the only ones to be met by him?

How much affection can a person shower on his or her while at sea?

How much instruction and direction can one offer them?

The person operating a subway train or working in a mine may be away from his family all day, but he does have an opportunity to come home at night, and his weekends can be spent with the family.

Studies from Norway, Britain and the West Indies, all tend to show that children growing up in split-up families are seriously handicapped in their chances of growing up normally.

When one parent is away, the other parent has to do the work of two; consequently, children suffer.

Consider, too, the moral aspect of such a life and the strain that it places on both the husband and the wife.

Many foreign ports swarm with prostitutes who are only too willing to sell themselves.

And seafarer are singled out as prime targets.

The lack of moral integrity aboard ships, too, is not a hidden secret; also group influence and loneliness-all these factors tend to weaken, corrode and destroy the virtues of even one of high principle.

Marital fidelity and moral integrity do suffer; without question.

The wife may be tempted while the husband is away, and the husband certainly is exposed to temptation.

An upright person would indeed be placing himself and, his high ideals in frightful jeopardy by ignoring these facts of sea life.

Do you want to take such chances with your life?

Throughout the world merchant fleets are expanding, and enticing offers are made to lure young people into that way of life.

Some vessels today are breathlessly beautiful to behold.

Many of them have comfortable quarters.

A number are controlled by automatic instruments, remote control, radar and other complicated electronic devices.

It also may be true that seafarers have much leisure time to study.

According to the Bureau of Naval Personnel, “persons at sea service read a lot more books than the average adult.”

But what is the quality of their reading?

It would be naive to think that people aboard ships are all industriously engaged in constructive pursuits in their spare time.

Such is simply not the case.

A seafarer’s life is a hard life, particularly difficult for a person with a family.

So, think carefully before obligating yourself to a life at sea.

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How to prevent protein deficiency?

Picture of a young child.

Lack of protein is basically responsible for the early deaths of untold millions of young children in  some areas of the world.

How to prevent such deaths by getting more protein foods into the diet of children in these areas has become a problem the solution of which requires the cooperation of parents and local authorities.

Malnutrition is a product of ignorance and poverty, and custom, superstition and taboos, which often limit the foods grown and used, are additional factors.

Many mothers who are illiterate do not know that generous supplies of high quality protein foods are needed by their young children.

Eggs that would give the children needed protein are often sold or traded instead of being fed to them.

Also, other foods that are high in protein are often not used for one reason or another.

The growth of a child generally slows down after it is weaned because its mother, usually through ignorance, fails to feed it protein rich foods.

It becomes a puny person with hair that is brown instead of black, skin that is paler than normal, skinny arms and legs and possibly an extensive degree of dwarfing.

At eighteen months it may not weigh any more than it did at nine months.

In some poor countries 70 percent of the children are affected by protein malnutrition.

This condition can produce mental and physical retardation that is irreversible.

Mild or moderate protein deficiency renders infants and young children particularly susceptible to respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

Disease accentuates the need for protein-rich foods, failure to supply which can cause death or the severe protein deficiency known as kwashiorkor, meaning “the disease the deposed baby gets when the next one is born."

Why protein is important? 

Picture of beans.

The very word “protein” means “first,” and that is the place it holds in our body’s need for nourishment.

It provides essential nitrogen and is constantly required for the growth and replacement of body tissues.

The body breaks down protein into constituents called amino acids and then reconstructs them into other proteins.

Our body can synthesize or make up all but eight of the more than twenty amino acids.

The eight that it cannot synthesize are called “essential” amino acids.

These must be supplied in the foods we eat.

If an essential amino acid is in short supply, it limits how effectively the body uses the rest of the protein in the food.

A good quality protein supplies all the essential amino acids in sufficient quantities and in proper ratio.

Egg protein is regarded by some persons as the best quality natural protein, with milk, meat and fish also rated high.

Among plants. those with the best-quality proteins are found in legumes such as beans, peas, ground peas (peanuts) and nuts.

While most plant products lack one or more of the essential amino acids, the deficiency can often be corrected by combining them with other vegetables that supply the lack.

For example, adding just a small amount of high-quality protein food to a diet of cassava or plantain will create an amino-acid balance enabling all the protein in the food to be used effectively.

To obtain this advantage, however, protein foods must be eaten together.

The balance is lost by eating maize one day and beans the next.

Eating a variety of foods together allows for the interaction of all essential nutrients.

Protein may actually be in a person’s diet, but the body will not be able to make proper use of it unless energy giving calories or essential vitamins and minerals are adequate.

On the other hand, adding much of one nutrient will only exaggerate the deficiency of the others.

Thus some malnourished Indonesians that were given high-protein skim milk but not an extra supply of vitamin A were adversely affected in their eyes.

A fully grown adult uses protein only for tissue maintenance and repair.

A child, however, needs it for growth.

This fact makes it possible for an adult to live on a supply of protein food that is totally inadequate for a child.

A child that is four years of age requires the same minimum amount of protein as an adult.

Because a child usually eats about half as much as an adult, he needs foods that have twice the concentration of protein as those eaten by an adult.

Too many mothers are unaware of this fact.

The normal flow of breast milk can fully meet the protein and calorie needs of an ’ infant until between the sixth and twelfth months of life.

After that, diet supplements are required.

This presents a problem in underdeveloped countries.

Cow’s milk is either not available or too expensive.

The same can be said of other protein rich foods.

Usually the child is fed on “pappy” cereals or starchy roots and fruits until he begins eating the normal family foods.

An expectant mother needs additional protein to meet the demands of pregnancy, otherwise she may handicap her offspring from birth.

Amazing as it may seem, good quality breast milk is often provided for prolonged periods by undernourished women, but at considerable cost to their own health.

Sources of cheap protein

Picture of soybeans.

Abundant quantities of cheap protein can be found in foods of vegetable origin, particularly oil-seed meals.

The food expert Nevin S. Scrimshaw observed:

“Most technically under developed areas could easily provide sufficient protein from either cotton seed or soya to correct their protein deficits.”

Meal can be obtained from ground peas, copra, sesame and sunflower seeds.

In Liberia investigations are under way on the advisability of building a plant to crush palm kernels and make palm-oil cakes.

The product would contain 80 percent protein.

Common varieties of beans and peas can partially correct protein deficiencies, particularly where cassava, yam, taro, sweet potatoes and plantain have replaced cereals as staple foods.

Grown on the same amount of ground, such legumes provide even more protein than do cereals.

An enormous potential supply of protein is in fish.

They can be processed into stable flour with or without a fish taste or odor.

For such to be produced cheaply, however, the whole fish, including viscera, scales and eyes, must be used.

For this reason the United States Food and Drug Administration pronounces fish meal or flour unfit for human consumption in that country.

But processors insist that they can convert whole fish into a clean and safe product.

At the present time the sanitary measures and precautions necessary in processing fish into meal for human consumption make it more costly than powdered skim milk and oil-seed meals.

While research continues to find ways of lowering the cost and increasing its acceptability, a village can obtain fish protein by maintaining a village fish pond.

Twenty-six fish ponds have been built in Liberia during the past few years.

Acceptance problem

School feeding program.

There has been a problem in getting people in some areas to accept a food they needed but were unfamiliar with.

A formulated cereal that was successfully sold in Guatemala was not accepted at all by the people in a nearby country.

In some places where free dried skim milk was distributed, people did not know what to do with it.

Instead of introducing new and unfamiliar foods, it appears that the people in some under developed lands can be aided best by helping them to use local foods that are available to them and with which they are familiar.

In Liberia the growing of ground peas or pigeon peas in gardens is encouraged as well as the raising of chickens, rabbits or pigeons.

They are admonished to use these protein-rich foods to feed their family instead of selling them.

There are people who are certain to object that it is not their custom to use certain foods that have a high protein content.

Fish and various animals, for example, are taboo to some people.

Even eggs are rejected in certain places because of a superstition that they cause a pregnant woman to give birth to a girl and turn growing boys into “Sissies.”

School instruction can help overcome these unwise views in the younger generation, but it is difficult to change them in adults.

Discontinuance of the old custom of prolonged breast feeding is having a bad effect upon young children where satisfactory substitutes for it are lacking.

Influenced by western ideas, some mothers mistakenly think that bottle feeding is socially superior to breast feeding.

Others think that store milk is more nutritious, but seldom can they purchase enough of it to supply their babies with the nutrition needed.

More often than not they feed their baby a highly diluted mixture of condensed milk and rice water or a corn flour gruel colored with milk that has been sweetened.

Such a diet causes malnutrition to set in.

If a mother were to continue breast feeding her child and also give it a food such as soft rice, it would be in less danger of protein and calorie malnutrition.

Improving local foods

Fish market.

The protein value of a maize gruel, such as "koko," which is used in Ghana, can be improved by adding some pea flour.

This is valuable when breast milk fails and there is no money for buying milk.

Homemade fish flour can also be added.

If at all possible some dried skim milk should be used, because it is rich in riboflavin, which helps the body to make full use of protein.

Perhaps it can be obtained free from a public health center.

Continued use of milk,eggs or fish flour is advisable because a child of two or three cannot easily eat sufficient corn and peas or beans to satisfy his protein requirements.

Where ettu (steamed mashed plantain) is the favorite weaning food, its nutritional value am be increased by adding some powdered milk or sweet potatoes and red beans.

Ground peas or dried fish flour can also be used.

This supplement should also be added where manioc or cassava is used as a weaning food.

Cereal protein, how. ever, is much superior to that of plantain or cassava and is always preferred in child feeding.

A nourishing baby food can be made of rice, ground peas (peanuts) and sesame seed.

First, soak the rice for two hours, drain it and then spread it on a farmer in the sun until partially dried.

Pound it in a mortar and then sift.

Parch ground peas and remove the skin.

Pound them in a mortar while still warm and then sift.

Clean sesame (benniseed) and parch.

Pound them and sift.

Mix five parts of both rice and sesame meal to three parts of ground-pea meal. One part of fish flour may be added.

Fish flour can be obtained by pounding dried fish thoroughly in a mortar.

To one cup of this mixture add four cups of cold water slowly until it is free from lumps.

Add one teaspoon of salt.

Cook slowly for thirty minutes.

If the baby is over eight months, add palm oil or pounded tender greens for vitamin A.

The protein content of this mixture, even without the fish, exceeds that of milk.

When there is a lack of time to prepare special baby food, what is in the family pot can be used.

A portion of cooked rice can be cooked for about fifteen minutes more with more water so as to make it softer.

Add two tablespoons of boned fish and some tender greens.

Cook for still another fifteen minutes, and then put it through a sieve.

This pap requires only thirty additional minutes to prepare after cooking for the family, and it can be done with only three pots.

You might think that young children cannot digest eggs, ground-pea flour, beans and peas, but, when these foods are properly prepared. they can.

Experiments have shown that egg protein can be easily fed to persons of all ages.

In Dakar, West Africa, ground-pea flour was easily digested by healthy infants from five to twelve months old when it was given to them in amounts that did not exceed 50 to 80 grams daily, but they had difficulty with larger amounts.

In Nigeria good results were observed when children of nine months to one year were given 30 grams daily of groundnut flour that contained 15 percent casein plus vitamins and mineral salts.

Bean puree can be made by first soaking the beans overnight.

Change the water and boil them with salt until they are soft.

Mash the beans and strain out the skins.

Continue boiling until the surplus water is gone and a firm puree remains.

Puree, palm oil, salt and fish can be wrapped in banana leaves and steamed to provide .a protein-rich baby food.

The problem of protein malnutrition is growing with the steady population increase in underdeveloped areas of the world.

The nutritional knowledge of what is needed for these peoples is available, and it can be supplied through government, national and international agencies.

Parents and village leaders would be wise to give heed to it.

By their applying this knowledge the deaths of millions of children from malnutrition can be avoided

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