How to make your teenager become a responsible driver?

Picture of a teenage driver.

Parents need to recognize this fact, and seriously consider:

Is my teeneger really ready for a driver’s license?

Otherwise, are they not at least partially responsible when their youngsters become involved in traffic accidents that cause deaths and injuries?

‘But what am I to do?’ you may ask. ‘Should I refuse my child a driver’s license?’

That is a decision you will have to make, but you can also make them become more responsible drivers.

Parental responsibility

Picture of a distracted  driver.

Many think it is the best answer, and recommend that laws be passed forbidding young people from driving.

But others believe there are better answers, much fairer to youths.

They argue that raising the driving age will not lessen the number of beginners on the road who lack driving experience.

And it is this lack of experience that is considered a major cause of auto accidents, regardless of the age at which one starts learning to drive.

So perhaps it is your decision to allow your child to learn to drive while he is quite young.

Do not conclude, however, that you have fulfilled your responsibility by simply having him take the driver’s education course at driving school.

These are generally inadequate.

In fact, studies show a higher accident rate even among driving school-trained teenagers.

Why do driving school programs fail?

Basically, it is felt, because they do not give the young driver practical experience.

Only a little time is spent actually driving, and this at slow speeds on lightly traveled streets.

Few, if any, emergency situations are faced. “Because of this,” a spokesman for a large auto insurer explained, “young drivers are not ready to face many emergency situations such as blowouts and skids.

Too often the youthful driver’s first experience with an emergency situation is the real thing, and too often he will never get a second chance.”

For this reason Dr. Amos E. Neyhart,  who has set up a driving course says :

 At least 12 hours should be spent by each student behind the wheel. The student driver must be given simulation experience in skidding, brake failure, tire blowouts, running off the road, and so on. We’ve been teaching manipulative skills but not enough accident-prevention skills.”

So, as a parent, you should see that your teenager receives adequate driving experience.

Let him practice while you are with him.

Give him practical experience at turnpike speeds.

Also, it is wise to teach him to handle skids, estimated to be a major contributing factor in one of every four fatal auto accidents.

Perhaps you can find a large, unoccupied, iced-over parking lot and obtain permission to use it to practice skidding and counter-steering.

Reading about skid control will never educate as well as will experiencing the real thing.

Nor does your responsibility end with simply seeing that your youngster can expertly handle a car, even in emergency situations.

Inculcating a proper mental attitude is equally important, if not even more so.

Instilling a sober, mature attitude

Picture of a sober driver.

Your youngster may be a teenager, but when he is behind the wheel of a car it is essential that he be a stable person who values life and property.

It is your responsibility to see that he is.

Endeavor to develop in him courtesy, respect for law, carefulness and consideration for the rights of others.

A vital way of doing so is by providing a good example in the way you drive.

Emphasizing the importance of this, Dr. Bruno Bettelheim, a noted psychoanalyst, said:

Even if a parent breaks a traffic law only occasionally, it may be enough to destroy a child’s belief that he should obey all rules at all times. An occasional speeding violation by a parent, or impatient cheating at the stoplight, makes a youngster imagine that to be ‘grown up’ means one can break the law and get away with it.”

It is vital, too, to teach your youngster to think while he drives, always to be analyzing the traffic situation.

One parent makes a kind of game out of this, explaining:

My son . . . sits beside me in the front seat of the car, looks ahead, and picks out possible dangers. For example, there is a line of parked cars ahead with a driver seated at the wheel of one car. What should the driver of our car do if the other driver pulls out suddenly or opens his car door on the wrong side? There’s a hidden driveway where a car may come out unexpectedly. How do we prepare to meet this emergency? Up ahead is a blind curve. How do we proceed?”

Some may think that young people have such quick reflexes that they can, at the last moment, take accident-preventing action.

But the fact is, being able to get one’s foot to the brake a fraction of a second faster than the next person is much less important in avoiding accidents than driving carefully enough so that such activity is unnecessary.

Yet another way to impress upon your youngster the importance of safe driving is to allow him to see and hear firsthand what happens to traffic violators.

If you get in touch with the local court, the judge may be glad to have you come down to listen.

He may even arrange to hear a series of cases that will be especially instructive and impressive for teenagers.

Also effective is to have youths visit the emergency ward of a hospital and watch traffic-accident cases as they are brought in.

This can certainly make a lasting impression that emphasizes the importance of safe driving!

By inquiring and explaining the reason for it, you may receive permission to visit such an emergency ward.

It is not an exaggeration to say that the future of your youngster is dependent, to a surprising degree, upon your proper supervision of his use of the car.

You simply cannot close your eyes to the danger when he is behind the wheel.

It is real!

So do all you can to make your youngster a safe driver.

His life, and that of others, may depend on it.

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Why laughter is the best medicine you can take?

A military doctor having a laugh with a sick child.

Animals cannot laugh.

The enjoyment of laughter is reserved exclusively for humans.

For centuries research has gone on to find out why people laugh, but it is still largely a mystery.

Do you enjoy a good laugh?

Is it beneficial to laugh?

There are different views about humor.

Some stress the negative side, viewing humor as “aggressive,” tending to belittle other people.

On the other hand, laughter has been called “a prerequisite to a well-rounded personality,” “wonder drug for depression.”

But why can it be regarded as one of the most important natural medicine?

Aid to a healthy mind and body

A father having fun with his children.

An article entitled “The Sense in Humor” points out that some psychologists and psychiatrists have begun to explore the possibilities of using humor therapeutically.

They are attempting to encourage their patients’ sense of the ridiculous as an antidote to emotional distress.

On the other hand, persons with no sense of humor often show symptoms of emotional disorders.

Dr. Margaret Prouty,
a retired pediatrician, made an interesting observation concerning children who developed ulcers due to stress:

Years of observation have convinced me that one of their chief personality defects is an almost total lack of a sense of humor. Life is indeed real and earnest, and they have no ability to laugh at themselves or at others.”

You probably know some persons who take themselves very seriously, walking about with a ‘chip on their shoulder,’ so to speak.

Are such people happy?

Do they contribute to the happiness of others?

The solution may be no more involved than learning to laugh at themselves.

Psychiatrist Smiley Blanton stated:

I’ve seldom been called on to help a person who had a sense of the ridiculous, and I’ve never had to treat anyone who could really laugh at himself.”

Can you see the humorous side of your life?

Yes, “a sound mind” goes hand in hand with a modest view of oneself.

You will more easily develop that view if you learn to laugh at yourself.

What about the effect of humor on physical health?

Dr. James J. Walsh, in his book Laughter and Health, explained that the up-and-down movement of the diaphragm in laughter affects internal organs in a manner similar to exercise.

Laughter gives a gentle massage to the heart, improving circulation. A like effect upon the liver and intestines aids digestion and elimination of wastes.

Dr. Walsh points out that persons with blood-pressure problems would do well to “keep laughing.”

Results of experiments revealed that people with blood pressure of 180 or above experienced—through laughter—a drop of 10 or more points; those with low blood pressure (below 120) showed a rise of 10 points or more. But there are times when laughter is out of place.

The magazine Science Digest observes:

Like a coin, humor appears to have two sides. . . . Sometimes wit is used either consciously or unconsciously as a weapon. There is a saying, ‘Laughter kills.’”

This is particularly true with regard to young children.

Never should a child be the victim of derisive “humor.”

Nor should children be allowed to use such a “weapon” on other youngsters.

This is a sign of insecurity and parents should be quick to correct whatever is wrong.

To avoid hurting another be sure you laugh with him, not at him.

Indeed, there is a time to laugh.

Hearty, relaxed laughter can benefit you mentally, physically and emotionally.

But be careful not to engage in laughter at the wrong time, or to use your sense of humor to hurt others.

Other humor’s benefits

Benefits of laughter.

Humor is helpful in coping with difficult situations

Laughter can play an important part in promoting peaceful family life.

Illustrating this is the experience of a father who became provoked at his young son for leaving a new bicycle out in the rain overnight.

“Put it out in the driveway and let me run over it,” the father said bitterly.

“We might as well finish it off.”

As his anger flared, the father grabbed the bicycle and wheeled it onto the driveway. 

Then the boy’s younger sister and mother made some remarks to provoke laughter in the angered father.

What happened?

The man explains:

After a moment I smiled. Then I laughed. The moment I laughed, I could sense the tension ebbing away. A feeling of relief took over. Sanity had returned. Everyone joined in the laughter.”

Reflecting on the benefits of humor in trying situations, this man stated:

More and more I am convinced that humor is a sixth sense, as important to our enjoyment of life—even to our survival—as any of the five physical senses. And if there is any place it comes in handy it is in the home. Ours, anyhow.”

Humor can brighten up even an apparently hopeless situation.

Does your occupation require you to persuade others of the value of some product, of the need to take a particular course of action, or of the reasonableness of certain arguments?

How can you convince your hearers to act upon what you say?

William J. McGuire, of Yale University’s Department of Psychology, writes concerning persuasion:

The use of humor in the message can enhance yielding; apparently it puts the recipient in a more pleasant, agreeable state.”

Concerning children a psychologist noted:

A sensitive parent can learn a great deal from observing when and why his child laughs just as we learn from observing in our clinical work. . . . Relaxed laughter is healthy, but distorted, artificial laughter can be a cover-up for troubled feelings.”

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Why breathing fresh air vital for your well being?

A woman enjoying breathing fresh air.

Have you ever enjoyed the experience of getting away from the smoke polluted atmosphere of the larger city into the clean, stimulating fresh air of the open countryside?

Of course you have.

You took a deep breath.

Immediately you felt the invigoration.

Depression and lethargy began to shake off.

What a wonderful sense of well-being!

Instead of merely taking for granted this swift and refreshing transformation, why not pause and ask some pertinent questions?

Why is fresh air so beneficial?

Why is air so vital‘ to life itself?

What happens when you take a deep breath, filling your lungs with this precious substance?

Getting an understanding of these matters aids one to build up appreciation for the makeup of our respiratory system.

What is air?

Picture of air.

We humans live at the bottom of a vast ocean of air that envelops the earth.

This ocean consists of a mixture of gases in fairly regular proportion.

The most important of these, a component of air that is essential for us to keep alive, is oxygen.

This is what the body uses, combining it with carbon from food eaten, to build up energy needed for the multiplicity of bodily processes.

Oxygen makes up about one-fifth of the total volume of air.

The other components of the gaseous envelope in which we spend our lives are nitrogen, making up about four-fifths of the total volume, and carbon dioxide, of which there is less than one percent.

Realizing that all the food in the world would be quite useless to us without oxygen, we can afford to be curious about how the body uses the oxygen we breathe in.

What part do the lungs play?

Just how is this vital element of the air converted into a fund of energy?

The lungs  

Picture of animated lungs.
Let us take note of the lungs and their function.

Take a deep breath and feel your lungs expanding to fill the chest cavity below the ribs.

The lungs are roughly conical in shape, with the narrow ends uppermost.

Like the bellows of an accordion, yes, but much more complicated inside.

Imagine the movement of air taken in through the nose into the windpipe or “trachea," a tube having a diameter of about three-lifths of an inch.

After about four inches this “trachea” splits into two branches, called “bronchi," leading into each of the lungs.

Once inside the lung. each “bronchus" divides yet again into smaller branches, which, in turn, keep subdividing into smaller and smaller tubes filling the interior of the lung.

To get a clearer idea of this amazing structure inside the lung, just imagine an inverted tree with a main stem four inches long dividing into two branches and then subdividing again and again to terminate in clusters of the tiniest twigs.

Only, instead of twigs at the end of those minute passageways, the smallest being known as “bronchioli,” there are clusters of tiny air spaces, “alveoli,” as they are called.

The “bronchioli,” by the way, have a width of only about one-hundredth of an inch.

Exchange of oxygen

Picture on exchange of oxygen in the lungs.

Note, now, those “alveoli” or tiny air spaces grouped together at the extremities of the “bronchial” tree.

It is here that the oxygen filling these air spaces is transferred to the cells of the bloodstream.

Intertwined with the subdividing branches of the air tubes within the lung, there is a network of arteries breaking down into veins and minute capillary blood vessels,

The vessels are so small that eventually the red blood cells are moving through in single file.

By the time that the extremities of the air tubes are reached, the walls separating the air tubes from the capillary blood network are so exceedingly thin that the transfer of oxygen to the bloodstream becomes possible.

It is a two-way transfer, for at this same location the blood discharges its waste cargo of carbon dioxide into the air spaces, to be expelled by lung action back into the atmosphere.

Meantime, the oxygen-enriched blood moves back through capillaries and veins to the heart, from there to be pumped. through the body again.

Intricacy of the breathing system

Picture on inhaling breathing system.

According to one authority, there are an estimated 750 million of these tiny air cells in our lungs, ensuring a constant and plentiful supply of the vital oxygen for all the complicated processes going on inside the body.

This might be compared to a vast exchange area, connecting, let us say, road and rail traffic, with 750 million loading and unloading platforms.

All that within the small compass of the chest cavity!

If all those air spaces at the extremities of the “bronchial” tree were opened out and spread flat, it is believed they would cover an area of some 1,000 square feet.

That is the equivalent of sixteen blankets, each measuring seven by nine feet!

Little wonder, then, that humans would find it far more difficult to produce an artificial lung than to make an artificial heart.

And another amazing feature of our breathing apparatus is that no matter how hard we try, we just cannot empty our lungs.

There is always a large residue of air left in the bronchial tubes and air spaces.

In normal breathing, it is claimed, only about one-tenth of the total volume of air passes out of the lungs.

And the process of exhaling and taking in a fresh supply is repeated eighteen to twenty times each minute.

Transport of oxygen

Picture of red blood cells transporting oxygen.

That so little is expelled at each exhalation raises the question as to how a good, constant supply of fresh air is guaranteed to the exchange units at the extremities of the “bronchial" tree.

And here is where a basic law of the universe comes into operation, making possible the transport of oxygen from the outside atmosphere to the inner cells of our bodies.

It has been found that two samples of the same gas, say oxygen, at different pressures, when brought into contact with each other, will mix and diffuse until an equalizing of the pressure takes place.

So, the highly concentrated incoming oxygen swiftly mixes with the oxygen depleted air already in the lungs, and in this way the level of oxygen at the exchange points is constantly maintained.

The same principle applies in the actual exchange of oxygen from the air spaces to the bloodstream.

The exceedingly thin walls at these terminal points allow the same diffusing of oxygen, so that the concentration in the bloodstream is built up and maintained.

The red blood cells absorb the oxygen, carry it to the millions of cells throughout the body, and there it is used to burn up the food eaten.

Since food eaten combined with oxygen breathed in is the energy source for all body activities, we can understand why we often have to struggle for breath after any particularly strenuous exercise.

Energy spent leaves our oxygen supply depleted.

The importance of a constant supply of oxygen is underlined by the fact that only a few minutes of oxygen starvation can cause irreparable brain damage.

Our illustration of the inverted tree with its branches representing the bronchial system is all the more apt when we learn that in reality trees and plants operate in a converse manner in relation to animal creatures, and have a great deal to do with the maintenance of the vital oxygen supply on our planet.

For, while the breathing creatures take in oxygen and throw off carbon dioxide, plants with their intricate mechanisms take in needed carbon dioxide, during the sunlight hours, and release oxygen into the atmosphere.

Also, we can begin to have some appreciation of fresh air as distinguished from the contaminated air of many industrial regions.

Investigation has shown that Eskimos and others who live in a dust-free atmosphere retain the original rose-pink color of the lungs, while the lungs of coal miners become a shade of almost uniform jet black.

The black and dirty condition of city buildings also bears witness to the hazard to which the lungs of city dwellers are subjected.

Opportunities to get away, even if only temporarily, from polluted atmosphere are really opportunities to learn what it feels like to for us to breathe fresh air.

So when you take a deep breath, be thankful for the abundant provision of the air enveloping atmosphere and marvel at amazing breathing system that keeps us alive.

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Why water is so important for life to exists?

Water is an interesting and unique part of our earth.

Its abundance and availability mark the earth as different from the other planets in our solar system.

We all know from personal experience how, important water is.

Without it we could not have a morning cup of tea or coffee, nor make ice for our cold drink during the hot summer months.

Without it we would have neither steam heat nor water cooled engines in our automobiles.

Probably the most extensive use for water is for irrigation purposes in farming.

This use accounts for about half the fresh water that is used annually.

The next-largest customer for water is, not the home, but the factory.

A large paper mill uses more water each day than does a city of 50,000 people.

But what is it about water that makes it so useful?

What makes water work the way it does?

Water is one of the most interesting of all the chemical compounds, being a mixture of two gases that combine to form, not another gas, but a liquid.

This, in turn, can be solidified and used as ice or heated into steam, acquiring even more interesting properties.

The formula for water was proved when the two gases hydrogen and oxygen were exploded by an electrical current.

The result was water, and an amazing property of water was thus discovered.

When two of the most volatile gases known are exploded together, the result is, not a tire, but water, the substance used to put tires out!

There is a definite chemical relationship between the two gases when combining to form water.

From the viewpoint of their relative weights, it takes one part by weight of hydrogen to combine with exactly eight parts by weight of oxygen.

Oxygen is a much heavier element than hydrogen, so, from the viewpoint of the volumes of the gases instead of their weights, it takes two volumes of hydrogen to combine with one volume of oxygen to get, not three, but two volumes of water vapor.

This is because the 2H combine with O to form a molecule of H20.

And how large is this molecule?

It takes about a trillion trillion of them to make an ounce of water.

The universal solvent

Red ink dissolving in a glass of water.

One of the most important properties of water is its power to  a great variety of different compounds.

There is no liquid on earth that can surpass water for its practical solvent qualities.

With good reason it has been called the “universal solvent.” 

Especially is water a vital solvent for living things.

Since all the different substances that comprise protoplasm (the essential substance of both the cell body and the cell nucleus) are either soluble in water or can be suspended in it, water is an essential means of transporting nutrients to the cells and of carrying away the waste products.

Every organic process occurs in a watery medium; for example, respiration and digestion.

Blood really is composed of about 90 percent water.

A large volume of blood is necessary at all times to carry oxygen to the tissues and to carry away waste products.

Adequate water must be maintained in the body tissues as well.

For example, adult muscle is from 80 to 90 percent water.

All tissues contain water in their protoplasm.

In terms of total body weight, water makes up over two-thirds of the human body.

What happens when one does not get enough water?

The water content in the tissues lowers and the blood becomes more concentrated.

This means that the blood cannot circulate as freely, and its oxygen carrying capacity is reduced.

The tissues do not receive the oxygen they need.

Waste products begin to accumulate in the tissues.

If water is not obtained soon enough, the functions of the body eventually stop and death results.

It is thought that one cannot live if he loses about 20 percent of the water in his body.

Water and good health

A man and woman drinking water.

If we are to stay alive, we must have water, and that almost daily.

It has been observed that some animals can live as long as three months and sometimes more without food, but they will die in five to ten days when they cannot get water.

How much water is necessary for good health?

That depends on physical condition, weight, age and other factors.

Under ordinary conditions the adult human body loses about fifty fluid ounces of water a day.

Of this about twenty ounces is lost through the skin as perspiration, another thirteen ounces in the air exhaled through the lungs, and the balance, about seventeen ounces, in the urine.

Naturally this varies with each individual.

For good health this lost water must be replaced daily.

Not all need be taken as fluids; some is obtained in the food we eat.

Fruits and vegetables contain from 80 percent to 90 percent water, and milk about 87 percent. In the normal diet we can expect to take in from one and a half to two pints of water a day, including the water that is present in food and that which is formed by the body in the oxidation of food.

How does the body make water by oxidation?

It has been observed that when one molecule of glucose is oxidized in digestion, six molecules of water are produced.

Where did the water come from?

From inside the glucose molecule, which has many hydrogen and oxygen atoms in its structure.

When that molecule is broken up by the influence of gastric juices and enzymes, other products are produced, and the leftover hydrogen and oxygen atoms are combined by the body to form water.

In this manner, the body can manufacture some water for itself; indeed, some animals, such as certain desert dwelling rodents, can make so much water that they never need to take a drink!

In humans it has been estimated that a person producing 2,400 calories of heat per day can obtain about ten fluid ounces of water as a result of this oxidation of food.

Such water is sometimes called “metabolic water.”

How plants use water?

Water droplets on leaves.

Plant life is greatly affected by the abundance or lack of available water.

In the study of trees we can learn much about how water is utilized in other plants.

About 75 percent of the weight of a tree either is water or is made from water.

All the food for the tree, the nitrates and the minerals, is absorbed from the ground.

To be carried into the tree the nitrates and minerals must be soluble in water.
There may be present in the earth certain chemical elements, but if they are bound in compounds that are not water soluble they cannot be carried into the tree.

Carbon dioxide is another product that the tree must have in order to grow.

It enters the tree through the leaves, but cannot be used until it is dissolved in the water inside the tree.

Once inside the tree the elements can be used in the vital processes of life because the water transports them to different parts of the tree.

Another important role that the water plays in the tree is in maintaining “tungor", which is the normal tension on the cell wall necessary for the support of the cell.

Plant cells utilize water in yet another way.

This is in what is called “bound water.”

This differs from free water in that it is combined either physically or chemically as a part of the molecule in the plant.

This “bound water” is very difficult to separate from the molecule since it actually is a part of the molecule itself.

At low temperatures this water does not freeze and cannot be rendered useless by winter weather.

At high temperatures it is not lost through evaporation.

Naturally this has many advantages to the plant.

Bound water is of special interest in connection with the ability of plants to resist low temperatures and drought.

Winter wheat is planted in the fall and produces its crop the following summer.

A severe winter will kill many varieties of winter wheat, but a hardy variety of winter wheat may contain three or four times as much bound water as a non-hardy variety.

Drought-resistant grasses may contain ten times as much bound water as non~ drought-resistant varieties.

Chemical and physical properties of water

A drop of water falling into a pool of water.

Water has other useful properties that make it work in many ways for our benefit.

For instance, water has almost the greatest heat-absorbing capacity of known substances (bromine and hydrogen being two exceptions).

How is this property useful?

For one thing, water, in the form of oceans and lakes, acts as a cushion against the rising and the falling of temperatures and therefore makes a more comfortable climate in the areas where there are large bodies of water.

In the regulation of body heat, water has an important role to play.

This is because it possesses what is termed “high specific heat.”

This enables the body to store heat effectively without greatly raising the temperature. It also has “high heat conductivity.”

This property permits heat to be transferred readily from the interior of the body to the surface.

Finally, water possesses “high latent heat of evaporation,” which causes a great deal of heat to be used in the evaporation of water and thus cools the surface of the body when we perspire.

We have already mentioned the transportation of water in plants, but one way in which this is accomplished is interesting.

Water has a strong attraction for itself; it “sticks to itself,” which we call cohesion.

It also sticks to other things, and we call that adhesion.

This latter property of water is very important.

Because water can stick to other substances it can actually “climb” up in a small tube.

This is known as capillary action and is the main means of transportation in plants.

The water enters the plant from the ground and must climb up the tree, carrying with it the dissolved substances that the plant needs for life.

Actually, this process depends upon both the cohesion in the liquid itself and the adhesion to the walls of the small veins inside the plant.

How powerful is this force?

It is known that in some trees a water column of 430 feet in height can be supported by this powerful “sticking” force of water.

Water inside living things enters into many of life’s chemical processes.

Many compounds can be split by water to form others and thus carry on the chemical work of the organism.

Cane sugar, for example, is split into equal parts of glucose and fruit sugar, one water molecule being used up in the process.

Of even greater importance to life is the splitting by water of some of the phosphate compounds.

This process releases energy, which then can be used by the body for the building up of other vital compounds.

In plants, too, water plays a. chemical role in the photosynthesis process.

Sunlight on the green plant causes oxygen to be released from the water and causes the hydrogen atoms left over to be utilized, along with carbon dioxide, in such a way as to form sugar.

Ice and steam

Picture of ice melting into water vapor.

A discussion of water’s properties would not be complete without a word about its many applications and its usefulness in the solid state as ice and also as water vapor(steam).

Water is unusual in that it reaches its most dense point before it becomes a solid.

How is this important to us?

If water gradually became more dense with the lowering of the temperature, as do most substances, it would solidify in such a way as to be a real problem for mankind.

Actually, water reaches its most dense point at 4 degrees above its freezing point or at 4 degrees Centigrade.

This means that when a large body of water, such as a lake, cools from the cold air above it, the surface water becomes cold first and grows heavier.

It sinks to the bottom of the lake, and the warmer water rises.

In this way the entire body of water cools at the same rate.

Finally, the surface water falls below 4 degrees Centigrade and the water turns to ice, which is lighter than the dense water below it and so does not sink, but, instead, floats on the surface.

Therefore instead of having the bottom freeze first, and thereby eventually filling up the lake with ice and killing all water life, a thin crust of ice forms on the surface and prevents the rest of the water in the lake from becoming cold enough to freeze.

One of the principal uses of water in industry is to generate power through steam, water in the vaporous form.

Water has the ability, when changing from ice to liquid to steam, to “store up" heat and hold it without itself rising in temperature.

What an amazing substance water is!

Every day of our lives we see water working for us, in the plants we must have for food, in our own body chemistry to keep us healthy and in the practical uses we find for it to help us do our work.

Systems have been devised that allow space explorers to orbit the earth in outer space, but scientists know that, unless they can solve the problem of providing sufficient water, the human race is bound to this earth by its need for abundant water in order to maintain life.

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