How to drive more safely on the road?

Cars that are more safely constructed could reduce the casualty figures, but more than this is needed. The principal cause for highway accidents is not the cars but the people who drive them. 

What else can be expected but accidents when several million drivers are indifferent to the safety and rights of others on the highway?

What else can be expected but collisions when large numbers of drivers are not alert to the danger of high speed and of possibly dangerous situations?
What else can be expected but tragedy when so many drivers exercise poor judgment and seem to be oblivious to the fact that there are other cars on the road beside their own? 

Safe driving  

Good sense should tell a driver, for example, that tailgating is foolhardy, that it is putting him into a dangerous situation with no allowance for a way out. 

A sudden stop by the car in front can send him smashing into its rear. Think of the, injuries that could be avoided if more drivers would be conscious of this danger and drove in a manner so as to avoid it.

All they need to do is leave enough space ahead to allow for a sudden stop, and this is just a car length for every ten per hour of speed. 

But too many of them think they will get to their destination faster by closing up this safety gap. Actually, they increase their chances of never getting there.

Anticipating dangers and taking actions to avoid them is known as defensive driving and is the way to avoid contributing to the highway tragedy. 

It means that a driver will recognize dangerous driving patterns in other drivers and will take action to avoid possible trouble.

He will not take for granted that another driver will do what is sensible and correct but will allow for the possibility that he will do what is foolhardy. At the speeds modern cars travel, this is the only safe way to drive.

When approaching a blind cross street, for example, a driver who is driving defensively will assume that there is another car approaching this intersection and that it may not slow down or stop even if there is a stop sign there.

It can be a fatal mistake to trust in traffic regulations and signals to protect you from accidents. Too many drivers ignore them. 

Driving defensively may slow you down a bit so that you take a little longer to reach your destination, but your chances of getting there are much greater.

Are you a driver that is overconfident with your driving ability and imagine that nothing will happen to you on a highway? Do you regard yourself as being above average in driving ability? Most drivers do.

Do you point to the fact that you never have had an accident as proof of your skill? Eight out of ten drivers involved in fatal accidents could make the same claim. Overconfidence with motor vehicles is extremely dangerous.

Since the possibility of an accident is always present when you are in a motor vehicle, take what precautions you can to protect yourself. Use the seat belts in the car. 

They can increase your chance of avoiding injury. No matter how long you have driven without an accident, a car is still a dangerous vehicle, especially because there are millions of other drivers on the road. 

So do not feel foolish about using seat belts even for a short trip to a nearby store.

Too often accidents occur because drivers fail to show common courtesy and consideration for others. If the principle of neighbor love were exercised by more drivers, highway travel would be much safer than it is. 

But even though others do not exercise it, you can. If you become sleepy while driving, you show neighbor love by not endangering the lives of other drivers by continuing to drive. The same is true if a driver has had alcoholic drinks.

Neighbor love is also shown by helping a passing car get in front of you by slowing down a bit. It is shown when you decide to pass a car by signaling your intentions and by choosing a stretch of highway where you can see far enough ahead, so that you can pass without any danger of smashing into an oncoming car. Driving by the principle of neighbor love can save your life as well as the lives of others.

With each year bringing higher casualty figures, there is good reason for every driver of a motor vehicle to be gravely concerned. 

Although auto manufacturers can lower the figures by making safer cars and government officials can reduce them by better traffic and licensing regulations, the chief responsibility rests upon you, the driver.

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Why and how to become a responsible teen?

A teen relaxing with his dog near a river bank.

Although many teens may not realize it now, the effects of youthful indifference are certain to be felt later on in life. Such indifference is almost certain to lead to trouble and, in many instances, even death.

It would be wise, therefore, to examine yourself. Do you listen to what those who are older and more experienced have to say?

Or do you call them “old fashioned” because you feel that their outlook on life is outdated? For instance, what attitude do you take toward affairs around the home?

Teen training for responsibility

Your home is a training center to prepare you for adult life. Here habits and behavior patterns are formed that will be either beneficial or detrimental to you when you grow up.

They will determine whether you will develop into a mature, respectable man or woman, or will remain childish and immature in your ways.

Certainly a fully grown adult who still acts like a baby is a failure! So ask yourself: “Is my attitude toward affairs around the home preparing me for a successful adult life? Am I listening and taking in instruction?"

Consider the matter of neatness and cleanliness. Most parents try to teach their children to pick up after themselves, to make their bed, and to keep their clothes clean.

But all too often it goes in one ear and out the other. The children continue to leave things around for others to pick up. Do you find yourself doing that?

Consider what such indifference can lead to. The child who was careless grows up to be a person who is messy and disorderly.

Then, with behavior patterns and habits firmly set, one will finds it extremely difficult to make a change.

As a result, the person makes a very poor impression on others with who comes in contact with him.

Prospective employers turn him away, because they do not want sloppy, disorganized workers. So he fails to get a good job, or is fired from the one he does get.

If such a person ever gets married, how will it affect his marriage? Though he may have put his best foot forward during courtship, he soon slips back to his sloppy, indifferent ways.

To the disillusioned mate this becomes a continual source of friction and a vexation that is a marital sore spot. How many marriages have broken up because one of the partners could no longer stand the dirtiness and sloppiness of the other!

This is a fact. Failure in marriage has been experienced by many persons, because, in their youth, they were indifferent to the urgings of their parents to be neat and clean.

Then there is the matter of punctuality for meals and other appointments. Does mother have to call you time and time again before you come to supper, or in order to get you up for breakfast?

Tardiness can become a habit difficult to break.

Later on in life, the one who is constantly late for work, or who continually makes her marriage partner wait, is in for trouble. Indifferently turning a deaf ear to instruction can lead to such difficulty.

So how much better it is to make punctuality a habit while you are young, and thus lay the foundation for a successful adult life! It is obvious that the immature traits of your youth will not make for adult success.

You may have observed how babies howl and scream at any hour of the night and expect to be waited on, and that they do not perform any useful chores around the house.

But as a child grows older, is it not right that it should accept some responsibilities?

Instead of always expecting to be waited on, should you not take the initiative to do things for others? Would you not say that failure to consider the welfare and happiness of other members of the household is evidence that one is still a baby?

Surprisingly, however, many teens retain this characteristic of babyhood. In some homes when parents ask their teens to do the dishes, set the table, mow the lawn or perform some other household work, they pretend not to hear.

Others make excuses and look for a way to avoid responsibilities. But consider what such indifference can lead to.

A person who is indifferent when he is young will have a difficult time functioning as a part of a smooth-working organization later on in life.

Because he never learned to work and cooperate with other household members, he will find that he always has trouble when working along with others.

Nor will he be trained to observe what needs to be done, or have the urge to get up and do it. Not only will this be a handicap in secular employment, but think of the trouble it can cause when one has a own home.

A husband is likely to be displeased because his wife never learned to cook well, keep house or organize household affairs. And a wife will be unhappy because her husband fails to cooperate with her in keeping the home attractive and well cared for.

Then, too, it will be impossible for a parent to tell his children, “This is how we used to do it at home,” because he never did.

How much better to avoid all this by learning to take an interest in your home and its affairs now!


The early years of life should be happy years. However, many teens apparently feel that listening to instruction and counsel will interfere with their happiness.

But this is not true. The counsel that a wise teen receives not only will enable him to walk in a way that will bring pleasure and satisfaction, but it will ward off calamity in the future.

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How to stop the urge to smoke cigarettes naturally?

A woman smoking a cigarette.

For many years dire warnings have been issued from time to time about the dangers of smoking. For many smokers they have been very disturbing, even frightening.

The problem is that most people would like to quit smoking, but find it very difficult to do so naturally. Then, how can one quit smoking naturally?

How to stop smoking carvings naturally?

The best way to break the smoking habit naturally is to stop abruptly. Tapering off merely prolongs the agony, making it more difficult to stop. Throw away all your smoking paraphernalia so it will not tempt you, and announce to your friends that you have stopped.

This obligates you to prove to them that you are sufficiently strong-willed to do it. But your resolve to stop will crumble unless you plant firmly in your mind solid reasons for quitting. The solid reasons for quitting are the negative effects of smoking on your body. Here are some of them.

When you inhale deeply the smoke from a cigarette, 90 percent of the entire weight of the smoke will be absorbed by your lungs. The smoke contains several colorless gases in addition to tars and other substances.

One of the gases is carbon monoxide, with which the hemoglobin of your blood links in preference to the oxygen present in the lungs.

Because the blood does not give up carbon monoxide to the tissues, the hemoglobin molecules do not readily get rid of their passenger so they can pick up oxygen for the body. Thus the number of hemoglobin molecules for carrying vitally needed oxygen is reduced.

One pack of cigarettes smoked within a period of seven hours results in a carbon monoxide saturation of the blood of from 5 to 10 percent. It is this cutting down on the oxygen supply that contributes to an athlete’s lowered efficiency when he smokes.

Another ingredient of tobacco smoke is a poisonous alkaloid known as nicotine. With an average cigarette approximately three milligrams of nicotine enters your mouth, making a total of sixty milligrams for twenty cigarettes.

If you took this amount of nicotine into your body in one dose it would kill you by paralyzing your organs of respiration. By taking it in small doses the body is able to build up a tolerance for it and is able to dispose of it. As might be suspected, this poisonous alkaloid has a detrimental effect on the body.

Nicotine affects principally the nerve ganglia. These are the relay stations in the nerve circuits that control the various parts of the body. At first it stimulates and then quickly depresses, causing a partial blocking of nerve impulses.

This is why smoking slows the reaction time of athletes. The stimulating action of nicotine is what makes some persons feel pepped up by a smoke.

It has been found that nicotine causes the heart to work harder without increasing the oxygen supply proportionately. By your smoking one cigarette, your heart-beat will increase as much as twenty beats per minute, and your blood pressure goes up.

This can cause anginal pain. Heavy smoking has been singled out by some prominent doctors, as a contributing causative factor for atherosclerosis, coronary thrombosis and thrombosis of the brain.

Smoking causes a noticeable decrease in skin temperature. This is due to the action of nicotine on the blood vessels, causing them to constrict so less blood flows through them.

The skin temperature of your toes and fingertips can drop as much as six degrees while you are smoking. This can develop into a serious disease.

Buerger’s disease is a painful affliction that is confined almost entirely to smokers. It involves the death of the tissues in the fingers and toes for lack of blood.

If the patient stops smoking, he usually recovers; but if he does not stop, gangrene sets in, making it necessary to amputate his extremities.

In some cases the frightful grip of the tobacco habit is so great that the victim of Buerger’s disease prefers to have his legs amputated rather than give up smoking.

The chronic cough of the smoker is usually due to irritation of his air passages. In many persons the coughing damages the lung tissue by causing a rupture of the small air sacs of the lungs. These fuse to form larger sacs, reducing the efficiency of the lung.

The result is the barrel-chest disease known as emphysema. It is believed by some doctors to be more common today than lung cancer. The condition is rarely found in persons who never smoke.

The above bad effects of smoking cigarettes, including the shortening of a smoker’s life-span by about ten years, are concrete reasons for stopping the habit. But that is easier said than done.

Withdrawal pains and addictive desire for tobacco makes stopping extremely difficult for a heavy smoker.

His chest pains him frightfully; there are cramps in his legs; his arms throb; he cannot sleep at night; he becomes extremely irritable and nervous; and all he can think about is having a smoke.

The crucial period is the first day and a half after you stop. This is when the withdrawal symptoms are the strongest, with the craving for a cigarette becoming greatest toward the end of the first twenty-four or thirty-six hours.

After that the craving sharply and steadily declines. For several weeks and even months thereafter you will experience intermittent and progressively less acute cravings for tobacco.

If you allow a single exception to your resolution, you will lose all the progress made to that point. You will have to start all over again.

Until you have broken away entirely from the strangling clutches of the habit, avoid as much as possible the association of people who smoke. Seeing them smoke and smelling the smoke can weaken your resistance.

When you feel the urge to smoke, concentrate on breathing rhythmically. It will give you something to do at that crucial moment. By breaking the habit of interrupting your breathing cycle to light up a cigarette, you can help break the smoking habit.

Get a drink of water and go for a walk in the fresh air if possible. In place of the cigarettes you customarily carried, have some hard candy, gum, peanuts or raisins.

They will give your hands something to do when you feel lost without a cigarette to keep your hands busy. You might also eat small chunks of apple.

Probably you will begin to gain weight, but this usually adjusts itself after a few months. Smoking tends to weaken the natural hunger contractions of the stomach, lessening your desire for food.

This and the dulling effect smoking has on the sense of taste and smell explain in part why some people are able to keep their weight down by smoking. These factors limit their interest in food.

Self-control at the dinner table is a much wiser method for keeping your weight down than smoking.


If you are a smoker, there are ample reasons for you to quit. They are far more concrete reasons than those you may have for continuing to smoke.

Whether you will succeed in any endeavor to stop depends entirely upon your personal determination, upon how much you value your health as well as your life.

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What are the right shoes for your feet?

Display of many shoes.

If you have foot trouble, most likely you were not born with it but you acquired it from the shoes you have worn. Shoes appear to be the major cause of most foot problems.

Remove your shoes and stockings and take a look at your feet. Are the toes pinched together, with some of them overlapping on others? Are they misshapen, with the big toe at an unnatural angle?

Have the arches fallen? Do you have trouble with ingrown toenails? These are some of the things that can result from poorly fitting shoes.

Foot Trouble Begins Early

Surprising as it may seem, the trouble many people have with their feet began while they were children. It might even have begun during infancy by having had poorly designed shoes put on them that restricted toe movements and put pressure on the soft bones of their feet.

Infants that have not begun to walk do not need shoes. While awake, the infant is constantly wiggling and exercising these toes. Any restriction of this toe action is harmful.

Socks and bootees should not be worn, except on rare occasion, during the child’s first year. The same applies to shoes. Foot-wear shouldn't be considered until the child is starting to walk.

Allowing the child to go barefoot is often a good way to strengthen its feet and to protect them from future trouble. During the first eighteen months of its life this is possibly the most important factor in preventing it from acquiring fallen arches.

From the ages of two to seventeen the bones of the feet are undergoing a hardening process that makes the feet particularly susceptible to foot defects caused by ill-fitting shoes.

So when buying shoes for their children, parents should be careful to select shoes that are wide enough and long enough to provide ample toe room. It is unwise to put a shoe on a child’s foot that is too large with the idea that it can grow into it.

Unless the child has the right size, its foot can be damaged. Arch supports should be avoided unless a doctor recommends them. They are not needed by healthy feet but can weaken them.

Foot growth has to be watched in children, as a child can quickly outgrow his shoes and damage his feet by wearing shoes that are too small.

Shoes that have been outgrown by an older child should not indiscriminately be passed on to a younger brother or sister. It is important that shoes fit.

High-heeled Shoes

Shoe styles among women in many lands cause them to wear foot-cramping shoes with high heels, but prolonged use of such shoes is not good for their feet.

There are foot doctors who believe that high-heeled shoes cause the calf muscle to shorten, foot ligaments and tendons to be weakened and the metatarsal arch to break down.

Practically any foot defect or symptom which the individual already has is aggravated by the habitual wearing of high heels. Bunions, corns, strained or weak feet, etc., have no opportunity to improve, and will become worse. Of course, there are differences of opinion on this matter.

Yet it might be better for women who want to wear high-heeled shoes to do so occasionally or at irregular intervals. During the day when a woman is doing a lot of standing or walking, a low-heeled shoe would treat her feet more kindly.

Nevertheless, if a woman wants to switch to shoes with lower heels for regular wear, it does not seem advisable to make a sudden change after habitually wearing high heels. The change should be made gradually.

Due to the fact that a woman’s calf muscle has shortened by prolonged use of high heels, a sudden change to regular use of low heels can cause sharp aching and cramps in the calves of her legs from the muscles being stretched to their normal length.

How to find the right size of shoes for your feet?

The right fit is the most important thing to look for when purchasing shoes. No matter how attractive a shoe may appear to you, do not buy it if it fits poorly. As has been pointed out, ill-fitting shoes can ruin your feet and damage your health.

It is wise to shop for shoes in the afternoon. This is because your feet tend to swell slightly after having worn shoes for a while. Since your feet are always smaller in the morning after a night’s rest, the afternoon is the best time to get a good fit in shoes.

Have the shoe salesman measure both feet while you are standing. There can be as much as a full size difference between when you are sitting and when you are standing.

By having both feet measured, you will know whether you have one foot that is larger than the other. This is not uncommon. The larger foot is the one that should be fitted.

Do not insist upon the size indicated in the shoes you are wearing. Sizes can differ between brands of shoes. What might be right for you in one make could be wrong in another make. Then, too, the size you are wearing may not be the best size for your feet.

Still another reason for having your feet measured each time you purchase shoes is the fact that your feet can change as you grow older. A woman who wears a size 7% at the age of twenty might require a size 8% at the age of forty.

The feet of children ought to be measured frequently to ensure that their rapidly growing feet do not become cramped in their shoes.

Check the length of the shoes you try on. They should be sufficiently long to allow a space of from one-half to three-quarters of an inch beyond your longest toe. The longest toe may not be the large one; for some persons it is the second toe.

A man’s shoe should be as long as possible, so that the pointed toe does not squeeze the toes. To check the width, squeeze each side of the shoe between your thumb and forefinger.

When a shoe is too narrow the leather will remain taut. There should be a little slack in the leather that becomes noticeable when you squeeze the shoe.

The widest part of the shoe is where the sole begins to curve toward the heel. This is where the ball of your foot at the big-toe joint should be.

By pressing on the side of the shoe and by moving your big toe, you can feel the big-toe joint and can see whether it rests at the turn of the sole. If it is in front of this widest part of the shoe, ask for a longer shoe.

Try on both shoes and walk about the store. This is the best test of a shoe’s comfort. The sole should be firm but flexible so that it bends easily as you walk. The space over the toes should be sufficient so your toenail will not dig a ridge into the leather.

For the good of your feet you need room around your toes. If you can feel the tip of the shoe against the nail of your big toe or against the side of your toe, the shoe is a very poor fit.

A shoe must give your foot sufficient room to be comfortable. If it does not feel right in the store, it will not feel right outside the store when you are walking.

Look at the lining in the shoe. In cheaply made shoes the lining quickly becomes worn and bunches up so that the shoe becomes painful to wear.

Smooth leather is the best lining. It has a strong resistance to wrinkling and tearing and is less subject to decomposition than fabric linings.

There is no real saving in buying cheaply made shoes. They will quickly wear out and are not carefully designed to give you a proper fit.

On the other hand, expensive shoes are not necessary for foot comfort. There are medium-priced shoes that can provide you with a good fit along with durability.

What you spend for a pair of shoes may not be nearly what you spend for a suit of clothes, but those shoes can have a far greater influence on your temperament and your health than the suit.

So take care of your feet and the feet of your children by always choosing good-fitting shoes.

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How to be a loving husband?

A husband with his wife and child.

Nevertheless, in a society where the family is the basic unit it is proper that a man should take his responsibility as husband seriously.

Some husbands, though, have difficulty in adjusting themselves to the home environment because of the highly competitive atmosphere in which they must work all day, where the big-man-kick-little-man attitude often alienates the boss from his workers.

The boss wants to get as much out of his workers as he can. His presence will stimulate activity, but will not always be welcome. Perhaps you would like to improve conditions under which you work but are not in position to do so.

However, you can do something about conditions in the home where you are the husband. Your homecoming can be something that the whole family looks forward to, or it can be a time when your wife says, “Look out, kids, your father’s coming!"

Being a loving husband

Something that makes any of us feel good is when the boss comes along, notices the good work we are doing and commends us. Nothing is more discouraging than always to have one’s mistakes noticed and bad work returned, while good work seemingly goes unnoticed, taken for granted.

When we stop to think about it, we know that we are getting paid for doing the job right, but we still appreciate a little pat on the back. Now, if a husband feels that way, would it not be reasonable to conclude that a wife does too?

She will soon sense it if her housekeeping and cooking are being taken for granted. She works hard to have the house clean and the meal ready on time.

Or perhaps she has spent a lot of time looking through magazines to find a new recipe. She has changed her dress and tidied her hair, and now here comes her husband.

Coat thrown there, shoes kicked off there, he gobbles down the meal without noticing anything different, and then sinks back in the armchair buried in a newspaper.

What a disappointment! If only he had said something that showed a little appreciation. It would have required very little effort, and it would have meant so much.

Empathy, putting oneself in the place of the other person makes all the difference. It can turn a boss-like husband into a loving husband.

All right, so you have been pushed around all day, but why make your home as unpleasant as the place where you work? Why not make it a place where there is an atmosphere of love and mutual refreshment?

This points to the importance of having a happy home environment. It comes about, not regardless of what the husband does, but because of what he does. How much effort do you expend in this regard?

You may be very generous, showering your wife with gifts but have you noticed that there is not the same response as there used to be. Perhaps she feels that your gift-giving has become perfunctory.

If this is the case, use a little more initiative, giving a gift when it is not expected.

It is not that the gift is an expensive one, but it comes as a surprise and says, “Thank you, Darling, for all the effort and cooperation in making our home such a happy place.”

Therefore, always having empathy, commend wherever possible and being alert to ways of showing appreciation. You can avoid the reputation of being just a family boss and show that you really are a loving husband.

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Best way to deal with culture shock

A cross cultural music festival.

Those that make the move to a new country are usually beset by mixed feelings. They long for relatives, friends and familiar places and things that they are leaving behind, but also eager to find out what their new home will be like.

Many are prepared to “rough it,” and even though their destination may be a flourishing city, in their mind’s eye it is unexplored territory. And such it is, for now they are going to discover a new the culture of a foreign country.

They will listen to and learn an unfamiliar tongue and observe and even practice different customs. A difficult thing to do, you might say?

Obviously, we are not born with a particular culture. Nothing in our genes or skin color forces us to speak English instead of Spanish or to ride a donkey instead of a horse.

But considering the vast differences in cultures throughout the world, it is reasonable to believe that the one is going to find many broad rivers that separate one from understanding the culture in a new country. This might cause one to think:

"Why should l try to adjust myself? l like things just as they are. I enjoy getting together with my fellow countrymen from back home to talk things over. l can speak a little of the native language, but really l do not understand these people here, or their way of thinking or things! “

Ah, such expressions suggest that a person is suffering from a touch of the not too rare disease called “culture shock.”

What is culture shock?

We might call culture shock an occupational disease of people who have suddenly been transplanted in a foreign country. Their first reaction is to reject the environment which causes the discomfort.

Some other symptoms of culture shock are: excessive washing of the hands, excessive concern over drinking water, food dishes and bedding; fear of physical contact with attendants or servants; the absent-minded, far-away stare (sometimes called the tropical stare).

There is also feelings of helplessness and a desire for dependence on long-term residents of one’s own nationality.

One may suffer from excessive fear of being cheated, robbed, or injured, great concern over minor pains and eruptions of the skin and finally that terrible longing to be back home.

'But that’s not me’ one might say. ‘Why, I like it here. I even have close friends among the neighbors.’ That is fine. But consider.

Are you happy speaking just a little of the language? Can you appreciate a clever anecdote or, even better; relate one in the new tongue?

Have you learned some of the local idioms and do you enjoy the pleased looks of others when you ably use one? Can you honestly say you enjoy the company of the native-born as much as that of your own countrymen? Maybe not.

Cross culture bridge building

The obstacle to bridging completely the gap that separates one from his new neighbors is a disposition developed while growing up in one’s native country. It may be an almost unconscious feeling, unrecognized until pinpointed.

It is called “ethno-centrism,” and is defined as “a habitual disposition to judge foreign peoples or groups by the standards and practices of one’s own culture.

There is a tendency towards viewing alien cultures with disfavor and a resulting sense of inherent superiority.” In other words, it is a nationalistic attitude that says in effect, ‘Your way is not good; my way is best.’

Needless to say, this way of thinking is offensive; and if this is your trouble you will have to make some adjustments in your bridge building. But one might object: ‘I’m not going to change my identity just because I have changed my address. And I’m certainly not going to go native!

This, however, is not necessary in order to be successful in bridging the gulf that separates one from understanding the culture of his new country. Understanding the ways of a people is essential but this does not mean that you have to give up your own.”

The important thing to remember is that one’s native way of doing things is not necessarily always the best. Perhaps where one came from it was, but in a new country with different circumstances another way may be better.

Some people have become interested in foreign cultures and, in time, have considered them superior to their own.

For example some missionaries assigned to foreign lands have slowly and even unwittingly “gone native” in the sense that they are perfectly happy doing things in a new and different way.

They will even do their thinking and sometimes dreaming in their adopted language. What a rich experience!

On the other hand, there are typically hundreds of families that every year that make a permanent move to another country. They may migrate for a number of reasons. What should they expect?

One thing is sure, they will discover new manners and methods, some acceptable and some not. They will be thrilled, shocked, pleased and impressed. But the best part of it is that they will have the opportunity to build a bridge between their native culture and foreign culture.

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